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Bulletin of Volcanology

, 75:740 | Cite as

Stratigraphy, sedimentology and eruptive mechanisms in the tuff cone of El Golfo (Lanzarote, Canary Islands)

  • Dario Pedrazzi
  • Joan Martí
  • Adelina Geyer
Research Article

Abstract

The tuff cone of El Golfo on the western coast of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) is a typical hydrovolcanic edifice. Along with other edifices of the same age, it was constructed along a fracture oriented NEE–SWW that coincides with the main structural trend of recent volcanism in this part of the island. We conducted a detailed stratigraphic study of the succession of deposits present in this tuff cone and here interpret them in light of the depositional processes and eruptive dynamics that we were able to infer. The eruptive sequence is represented by a succession of pyroclastic deposits, most of which were emplaced by flow, plus a number of air-fall deposits and ballistic blocks and bombs. We distinguished five different eruptive/depositional stages on the basis of differences in inferred current flow regimes and fragmentation efficiencies represented by the resulting deposits; the different stages may be related to variations in the explosive energy. Eight lithofacies were identified based on sedimentary discontinuities, grain size, components, variations in primary laminations and bedforms. The volcanic edifice was constructed very rapidly around the vent, and this is inferred to have controlled the amount of water that was able to enter the eruption conduit. The sedimentological characteristics of the deposits and the nature and distribution of palagonitic alteration suggest that most of the pyroclastic succession in El Golfo was deposited in a subaerial environment. This type of hydrovolcanic explosive activity is common in the coastal zones of Lanzarote and the other Canary Islands and is one of the main potential hazards that could threaten the human population of this archipelago. Detailed studies of these hydrovolcanic eruptions such as the one we present here can help volcanologists understand the hazards that this type of eruption can generate and provide essential information for undertaking risk assessment in similar volcanic environments.

Keywords

El Golfo Lanzarote Canary Islands Tuff cone Hydrovolcanism Facies analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was partially funded by CTM2009-05919-E/ANT. The authors are grateful to the Cabildo of Lanzarote and the National Park of Timanfaya for giving permission to undertake this research, and to Orlando Hernandez (Casa de Los Volcanes-Cabildo de Lanzarote) for his assistance with the logistics. We are also grateful to the Editor James White, the Associated Editor Thorvaldur Thordarson and the reviewers Danilo Palladino, Karoly Németh and Christopher Hamilton for their constructive reviews of this manuscript.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Group of VolcanologySIMGEO (UB-CSIC) Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume AlmeraBarcelonaSpain

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