Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, 75:717 | Cite as

From feeder dykes to scoria cones: the tectonically controlled plumbing system of the Rauðhólar volcanic chain, Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland

  • Nadine FrieseEmail author
  • Frithjof A. Bense
  • David C. Tanner
  • Lúðvík E. Gústafsson
  • Siegfried Siegesmund
Research Article

Abstract

The Rauðhólar volcanic chain, located in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland, has been variably eroded such that, in the northern part, the original scoria cones are preserved, while the central and southern parts expose their shallow feeders. The chain thus offers insight into the inner workings of the near-surface feeder system of scoria cones. The volcanic chain was mapped in 3D using GPS. The en echelon-arranged volcanic chain can be divided into three parts: The southernmost part contains only plugs and necks with a thin pyroclastic cover as well as multi-tiered lava flows. The central part combines partially eroded scoria cones, (feeder) dyke intersections, and welded scoria interbedded within rootless and clastogenic lava flows; the welded scoria is composed of different kinds of lithics and bombs. The northern part preserves almost intact, overlapping scoria cones with voluminous lapilli-sized scoriaceous deposits. The overall dyke trend is orthogonal but shows radial patterns in individual cone complexes. Feeder dykes observed to depths of about 200 m below the volcanic chain are up to 8 m thick and flare in to conduits in the uppermost 20–50 m. The exposed shallow plumbing system shows that magma pathways through the volcanic edifice are very complex with incremental, repeated intrusions. We interpret the arcuate shape to be the result of a local change in the orientation of the stress field because the Rauðhólar volcanic chain is located within a major relay structure between volcanoes on the eastern Fremrinámur rift arm and a rift extension with grabens on the western periphery.

Keywords

Scoria cone row Hljóðaklettar Rauðhólar Northeast Iceland Stress localization Accommodation zone Plumbing system 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the National Park managers Sigþrúður Stella Jóhannsdóttir and Þorsteinn Hymer and the staff of the Jökulsárgljúfur Park for the work permission and their support during our field studies. The rangers Jóna and Kristin are especially thanked for their company in the ranger house and introducing us to cultural highlights in Asbyrgi. Árman Höskuldsson is acknowledged for the help with the literature research and Sigurður Steinþórsson for the support with formalities at the beginning of the field work. We thank Steffi Burchardt, University of Uppsala, and Matteo Lupi, University of Bonn, for the very helpful discussions. We are grateful for the financial support from the Structural Geology and Geodynamics Department of the University of Göttingen. Midland Valley is acknowledged for providing a free educational license for their software Move 2008.1. We thank the journal reviewers Greg Valentine and José Jorge Aranda Gómez for their constructive reviews and Pierre-Simon Ross for the editorial work. The authors thank two anonymous reviewers for the helpful comments of an earlier version of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

ESM 1

(MPG 13099 kb)

References

  1. Acocella V, Tibaldi A (2005) Dike propagation driven by volcano collapse: a general model tested at Stromboli, Italy. Geophys Res Lett 32:L08308. doi: 10.1029/2004GL022248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alho P, Russell AJ, Carrivick JL, Käyhkö J (2005) Reconstruction of the largest Holocene jökulhlaup within Jökulsa a Fjöllum, NE Iceland. Quat Sci Rev 24:2319–2334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnadottir T, Lund B, Jiang W, Geirsson H, Björnsson H, Einarsson P, Sigurdsson T (2009) Glacial rebound and plate spreading: results from the first countrywide GPS observations in Iceland. Geophys J Int 177:691–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Björnsson A, Saemundsson K, Einarsson P, Tryggvason E, Gronvald K (1977) Current rifting episode in North Iceland. Nature 266:318–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bosworth W, Burke K, Strecker M (2003) Effects of stress fields on magma chamber stability and the formation of collapse calderas. Tectonics 22:1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brandsdottir B, Mencke W, Einarsson P, White RS, Staples R (1997) Färoe-Iceland ridge experiment 2. Crustal structure of the Krafla central volcano. J Geophys Res 102(B4):7867–7886. doi: 10.1029/96JB03799 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brenna M, Cronin SJ, Smith IEM, Sohn YK, Nemeth K (2010) Mechanisms driving polymagmatic activity at a monogenetic volcano, Udo, Jeju Island, South Korea. Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:931–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buck WR, Einarsson P, Brandsdottir B (2006) Tectonic stress and magma chamber size as controls on dyke propagation: constraints from the 1975–1984 Krafla rifting episode. J Geophys Res 111(B12). doi: 10.1029/2005JB003879
  9. Connor CB, Conway M (2000) Basaltic volcanic fields. In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton B, McNutt S, Rymer H, Stix J (eds) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic, San Diego, pp 331–343Google Scholar
  10. DeGaff JM, Aydin A (1987) Surface morphology of columnar joints and its significance to mechanism and direction of joint growth. Geol Soc Am Bull 99:605–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. DeMets C, Gordon R, Argus D, Stein S (1994) Effects of recent revisions to the geomagnetic reversal time scale on estimates of current plate motions. Geophys Res Lett 21:2191–2194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erlund EJ, Cashman KV, Wallace PJ, Pioli L, Rosi M, Johnson E, Delgado Granados H (2010) Compositional evolution of magma from Parícutin Volcano, Mexico: the tephra record. J Volcanol Geoth Res 197:167–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fedotov SA, Markhinin Y (1983) Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption: geological and geophysical data, 1975–1976. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaffney ES, Damjanac B (2006) Localization of volcanic activity: topographic effects on dyke propagation, eruption and conduit formation. Geophys Res Lett 33(14):L14313. doi: 10.1029/2006GL026852 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaffney ES, Damjanac B, Valentine GA (2007) Localization of volcanic activity: 2. Effects of pre-existing structure. Earth Planet Sci Lett 263:323–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Geshi N, Kusumoto S, Gudmundsson A (2010) Geometric difference between non-feeder and feeder dykes. Geology 38:195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gudmundsson M (2003) Melting of ice by magma–ice–water interactions during subglacial eruptions as an indicator of heat transfer in subaqueous eruptions. In: White JDL, Clague D (eds) Explosive subaqueous volcanism. AGU Geophysical Monograph 140:61–72Google Scholar
  18. Gudmundsson A, Friese N, Galindo I, Philipp S (2008) Dike-induced reverse faulting in a graben. Geology 36:123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guilbaud M-N, Siebe C, Agustin-Flores J (2009) Eruptive style of the young high-Mg basaltic-andesite Pelagatos scoria cone, southeast of Mexico City. Bull Volcanol 71:859–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Head JW, Wilson L (1989) Basaltic pyroclastic eruptions: influence on gas-release patterns and volume fluxes on fountain structure, and the formations of cinder cones, spatter cones, rootless flows, lava ponds, and lava flows. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 37:261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Heidbach O, Tingay M, Barth M, Reinecker J, Kurfeß D, Müller B (2008) The 2008 release of the world stress map. Available at http://www.world-stress-map.org
  22. Hintz AR, Valentine GA (2012) Complex plumbing of monogenetic scoria cones: new insights from Lunar Crater Volcanic Field (Nevada, USA). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 239–240:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hjartardottir AR (2008) The fissure swarm of the Askja central volcano. M.Sc. thesis, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, IcelandGoogle Scholar
  24. Höskuldsson T, Thordarson A (2002) Classic geology in Europe 3. Terra, HarpendenGoogle Scholar
  25. Houghton BF, Wilson CJN, Smith IEM (1999) Shallow seated controls of explosive basaltic volcanism: a case study from New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 91:97–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jenness MH, Clifton AE (2009) Controls on the geometry of a Holocene crater row: a field study from southwest Iceland. Bull Volcanol 71:715–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johannesson H, Saemundsson K (1998) Geological map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Tectonics. Institute of Natural History, ReykjavikGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson ER, Wallace PJ, Cashman KV, Delgado Granados H, Kent AJR (2008) Magmatic volatile contents and degassing-induced crystallization at Volcán Jorullo, Mexico: implications for melt evolution and the plumbing systems of monogenetic volcanoes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 269:478–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jónasson S, Einarsson P, Sigmundsson F (1997) Extension across a divergent plate boundary, the Eastern Volcanic Rift Zone, South Iceland, 1967–1994, observed with GPS and electronic distance measurement. J Geophys Res 102(B6):11913–11929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Keating GN, Valentine GA, Krier DJ, Perry FV (2008) Shallow plumbing systems for small-volume basaltic volcanoes. Bull Volcanol 70:563–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kirkbride MP, Dugmore AJ, Brazier V (2006) Radiocarbon dating of mid-Holocene megaflood deposits in the Jökulsa a Fjöllum, north Iceland. Holocene 16:605–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Klügel A, Walter TR, Schwarz S, Geldmacher J (2005) Gravitational spreading causes en-echelon diking along a rift zone of Madeira Archipelago: an experimental approach and implications for magma transport. Bull Volcanol 68:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Korme T, Acocella V, Abebe B (2004) The role of pre-existing structures in the origin, propagation and architecture of faults in the main Ethiopian rift. Gondwana Res 7:467–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lescinsky DT, Fink JH (2000) Lava and ice interaction at stratovolcanoes: use of characteristic features to determine past glacial extents and future volcanic hazards. J Geophys Res 105(B10):23711–23726. doi: 10.1029/2000JB900214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Luhr JF, Simkin T (1993) Paricutin, the volcano born in a Mexican cornfield. Geoscience, PhoenixGoogle Scholar
  36. Lyle P (2000) The eruption environment of multi-tiered columnar basalt lava flows. J Geol Soc Lond 157:715–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. MacLennan J, Jull M, McKenzie D, Slater L, Grönvold K (2002) The link between volcanism and deglaciation in Iceland. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 3(11):1–25. doi: 10.1029/2001GC000282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martin U, Nemeth K (2006) How Strombolian is a “Strombolian” scoria cone? Some irregularities in scoria cone architecture from the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, near Volcán Ceboruco, (Mexico) and Al Haruj (Libya). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 155:104–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mastin LG, Pollard DD (1988) Surface deformation and shallow dyke intrusion processes and Inyo Craters, Long Valley, California. J Geophys Res 93:13221–13235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mazzarini F (2007) Vent distribution and crustal thickness in stretched continental crust: the case of the Afar Depression. Geosphere 3(3):152–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nakamura K (1977) Volcanoes as possible indicators of tectonic stress orientation—principle and proposal. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 2:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nemeth K, White JDL (2003) Geochemical evolution, vent structures, and erosion history of small-volume volcanoes in the Miocene Intracontinental Waipiata Volcanic Field, New Zealand. Geolines 15:98–101Google Scholar
  43. Oskarsson BV (2009) The Skerin ridge on Eyjafjallajökull, south Iceland: morphology and magma–ice interaction in an ice-confined silicic fissure eruption. M.Sc. thesis, University of Iceland, ReykjavikGoogle Scholar
  44. Paulsen TS, Wilson TJ (2010) New criteria for systematic mapping and reliability assessment of monogenetic volcanic vent alignments and elongate volcanic vents for crustal stress analysis. Tectonophysics. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2009.08.025 Google Scholar
  45. Pinel V, Jaupart C (2004) Magma storage and horizontal dyke injection beneath a volcanic edifice. Earth Planet Sci Lett 221(1–4):245–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pioli L, Erlund E, Johnson E, Cashman K, Wallace P, Rosi M, Delgado Granados H (2008) Explosive dynamics of violent Strombolian eruptions: the eruption of Paricutin Volcano 1943–1952 (Mexico). Earth Planet Sci Lett 271(1–4):359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pioli L, Azzopardi BJ, Cashman KV (2009) Controls on the explosivity of scoria cone eruptions: magma segregation at conduit junctions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 186:407–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rooney TO, Bastow ID, Keir D (2011) Insights into extensional processes during magma assisted rifting: evidence from aligned scoria cones. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 201:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Saemundsson K (1970) Interglacial lava flows in the lowlands of southern Iceland and the problem of two-tiered columnar jointing. Jökull 20:62–77Google Scholar
  50. Saemundsson K (1979) Outline of the geology of Iceland. Jökull 29:7–28Google Scholar
  51. Self S, Sparks RSJ, Booth B, Walker GPL (1974) The 1973 Heimaey Strombolian scoria deposits, Iceland. Geol Mag 111:539–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sigurdsson O, Zophoniasson S, Hannesdottir L, Thorgrimsson S (1975) Geological report on the proposed hydroelectric power plant at Dettifoss. Report OS-ROD-7526. National Energy Authority (Orkustofnun), Reykjavik (in Icelandic)Google Scholar
  53. Slater L, Jull M, McKenzie D, Grönvold K (1998) Deglaciation effects on mantle melting under Iceland: results from the northern volcanic zone. Earth Planet Sci Lett 164:151–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Spörli K, Rowland J (2006) “Column on column” structures as indicators of lava/ice interaction, Ruapehu andesite volcano, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 157:294–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tentler T, Mazzoli S (2005) Architecture of normal faults in the rift zone of central north Iceland. J Struct Geol 27:1721–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thorarinsson S (1951) Laxárgljúfur and Laxarhraun—a tephrochronological study. Geogr Ann A 1–1:1–89Google Scholar
  57. Thorarinsson S (1959) Some geological problems involved in the hydroelectric development of the Jökulsa a Fjöllum, Iceland. Report to the State Electricity Authority, Reykjavik, IcelandGoogle Scholar
  58. Thorarinsson S (1971) Aldur ljósu gjóskulaganna úr Heklu samkvæmt leiðréttu geislakolstímatali. Náttúrufræðingurinn 41:99–105 (in Icelandic)Google Scholar
  59. Thordarson T, Larsen G (2007) Volcanism in Iceland in historical time: volcano types, eruption styles and eruptive history. J Geodyn 43:118–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Thordarson T, Self S (1993) The Laki (Skaftar Fires) and Grimsvötn eruptions in 1783–1785. Bull Volcanol 55:233–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tryggvason E (1980) Subsidence events in the Krafla area, North Iceland, 1975–1979. J Geophys 47:141–153Google Scholar
  62. Tryggvason E (1994) Surface deformation at the Krafla volcano, North Iceland, 1982–1992. Bull Volcanol 56(2):98–107Google Scholar
  63. Valentine GA, Gregg TKP (2008) Continental basaltic volcanoes—processes and problems. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 177:857–873. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.01.050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Valentine GA, Keating GN (2007) Eruptive styles and inferences about plumbing systems at Hidden Cone and Little Black Peak scoria cone volcanoes (Nevada, USA). Bull Volcanol 70:105–113. doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0123-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Valentine GA, Krogh KEC (2006) Emplacement of shallow dykes and sills beneath a small basaltic volcanic center—the role of pre-existing structure (Paiute Ridge, southern Nevada, USA). Earth Planet Sci Lett 246:217–230. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.04.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Valentine GA, Krier D, Perry FV, Heiken G (2005) Scoria cone construction mechanisms, Lathrop Wells volcano. Geology 33:629–632. doi: 10.1130/G21459.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vespermann D, Schmincke HU (2000) Scoria cones and tuff rings. In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton BF, McNutt SR, Rymer H, Stix J (eds) Encyclopaedia of volcanoes. Academic, San Diego, pp 683–694Google Scholar
  68. Waitt RB (2002) Great Holocene floods along Jökulsa a Fjöllum, north Iceland. In: Martini IP, Baker VR, Garzón G (eds) Flood and megaflood processes and deposits: recent and ancient examples. Spec Pub Int Assoc Sediment 32:37–51Google Scholar
  69. Walker GPL (1993) Basaltic-volcano systems. Geol Soc London Spec Pub 76:3–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Walter TR, Amelung F (2007) Volcanic eruptions following M ≥9 megathrust earthquakes: implications for the Sumatra–Andaman volcanoes. Geology 35:539–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadine Friese
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Frithjof A. Bense
    • 1
  • David C. Tanner
    • 2
  • Lúðvík E. Gústafsson
    • 3
  • Siegfried Siegesmund
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Structural Geology and Geodynamics, Geoscience CentreUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.Leibniz Institute for Applied GeophysicsHannoverGermany
  3. 3.Icelandic Association of Local AuthoritiesReykjavíkIceland
  4. 4.Wintershall Norge ASStavangerNorway

Personalised recommendations