Magma discharge variations during the 2011 eruptions of Shinmoe-dake volcano, Japan, revealed by geodetic and satellite observations
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We present precise geodetic and satellite observation-based estimations of the erupted volume and discharge rate of magma during the 2011 eruptions of Kirishima-Shinmoe-dake volcano, Japan. During these events, the type and intensity of eruption drastically changed within a week, with three major sub-Plinian eruptions on January 26 and 27, and a continuous lava extrusion from January 29 to 31. In response to each eruptive event, borehole-type tiltmeters detected deflation of a magma chamber caused by migration of magma to the surface. These measurements enabled us to estimate the geodetic volume change in the magma chamber caused by each eruptive event. Erupted volumes and discharge rates were constrained during lava extrusion using synthetic aperture radar satellite imaging of lava accumulation inside the summit crater. Combining the geodetic volume change and the volume of lava extrusion enabled the determination of the erupted volume and discharge rate during each sub-Plinian event. These precise estimates provide important information about magma storage conditions in magma chambers and eruption column dynamics, and indicate that the Shinmoe-dake eruptions occurred in a critical state between explosive and effusive eruption.
KeywordsShinmoe-dake Magma discharge Tilt SAR Eruption transition
We are grateful to Motoo Ukawa, Toshikazu Tanada, Masashi Nagai, Eiji Yamamoto, Yuhki Kohno, Yousuke Miyagi, Masayo Kikuchi, and other colleagues of NIED for construction and maintenance of V-net. We also acknowledge Toshiki Shimbori and Keiichi Fukui for providing eruption cloud echo data. We thank the associate editor Sonia Calvari and two anonymous reviewers for insightful comments and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. GSI of Japan is acknowledged for providing GPS data of GEONET and digital maps. Part of this study was supported by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology from MEXT (“Urgent study on the 2011 eruption of Kirishima-Shinmoe-dake volcano”), JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24244069, and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.
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