Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 74, Issue 2, pp 595–607 | Cite as

Sector collapse at Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano (Lesser Antilles): numerical simulation and landslide behaviour

  • Frédéric DondinEmail author
  • Jean-Frédéric Lebrun
  • Karim Kelfoun
  • Nicolas Fournier
  • Auran Randrianasolo
Research Article


Kick 'em Jenny volcano is the only known active submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles. It lies within a horseshoe-shaped structure open to the west northwest, toward the deep Grenada Basin. A detailed bathymetric survey of the basin slope at Kick 'em Jenny and resulting high-resolution digital elevation model allowed the identification of a major submarine landslide deposit. This deposit is thought to result from a single sector collapse event at Kick 'em Jenny and to be linked to the formation of the horseshoe-shaped structure. We estimated the volume and the leading-edge runout of the landslide to be ca. 4.4 km3 and 14 km, respectively. We modelled a sector collapse event of a proto Kick 'em Jenny volcano using VolcFlow, a finite difference code based on depth-integrated mass and momentum equations. Our models show that the landslide can be simulated by either a Coulomb-type rheology with low basal friction angles (5.5°–6.5°) and a significant internal friction angle (above 17.5°) or, with better results, by a Bingham rheology with low Bingham kinematic viscosity (0 < ν B < 30 m2/s) and high shear strength (130 < γ ≤ 180 m2/s2). The models and the short runout distance suggest that the landslide travelled as a stiff cohesive flow affected by minimal granular disaggregation and slumping on a non-lubricated surface. The main submarine landslide deposit can therefore be considered as a submarine mass slide deposit that behaved like a slump.


Kick 'em Jenny Sector collapse Submarine landslide Numerical modelling Rheology VolcFlow Lesser Antilles 



We would like to thank Professor JB Shepherd and Dr. JM Lindsay for providing bathymetric data. FD is particularly grateful to Dr. REA Robertson for welcoming him and providing facilities at the Seismic Research Centre at the University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad. We thank Dr. JF Dorville for helpful discussions, Dr. S Sherburn for improving the English text, associate editor J. McPhie, Dr. J Beget and anonymous referees for the manuscript evaluation. This work was funded by the European Union–Interreg 3B "caribbean spaces" project–group1–subproject 1.2.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frédéric Dondin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jean-Frédéric Lebrun
    • 1
  • Karim Kelfoun
    • 2
  • Nicolas Fournier
    • 3
  • Auran Randrianasolo
    • 1
  1. 1.EA 4098 LaRGE–UFR Sciences Exactes et NaturellesUniversité des Antilles et de la Guyane–Campus de FouillolePointe-à-PitreFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, OPGC, UBP—CNRS—IRDClermont-FerrandFrance
  3. 3.GNS Science, Wairakei Research CentreTaupoNew Zealand

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