Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, 71:1091 | Cite as

Continuing inflation at Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR observations

  • Daniel Dzurisin
  • Michael Lisowski
  • Charles W. Wicks
Research Article

Abstract

Uplift of a broad area centered ~6 km west of the summit of South Sister volcano started in September 1997 (onset estimated from model discussed in this paper) and was continuing when surveyed in August 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since August 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since August 2001 with GPS and leveling surveys, and with continuous GPS since May 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR decreased from 3–5 cm/yr during 1998–2001 to ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004–2006. The other datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface uplift and extension rates decreased over time but deformation continued through August 2006. Our best-fit model to the deformation data is a vertical, prolate, spheroidal point-pressure source located 4.9–5.4 km below the surface. The source inflation rate decreased exponentially during 2001–2006 with a 1/e decay time of 5.3 ± 1.1 years. The net increase in source volume from September 1997 to August 2006 was 36.5–41.9 x 106 m3. A swarm of ~300 small (M max = 1.9) earthquakes occurred beneath the deforming area in March 2004; no other unusual seismicity has been noted. Similar deformation episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most are small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

Keywords

Three Sisters South Sister Cascade Range Volcanology Geodesy Radar interferometry InSAR GPS Leveling Deformation Uplift 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Radar data used in this study were provided by the European Space Agency and Canadian Space Agency. Falk Amelung, John Langbein, William E. Scott, and an anonymous reviewer provided constructive reviews of the manuscript that led to revision and improvement of early drafts. Zhong Lu derived the relationship between vertical surface displacement and range changes observed in coeval ascending and descending interferograms. This research was supported by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program at its David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, and at its Western Region Headquarters in Menlo Park, California. Use of trade names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

References

  1. Balazs EI, Young GM (1982) Corrections applied by the National Geodetic Survey to precise leveling observations. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NGS 34, 12 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Battaglia M, Segall P (2004) The interpretation of gravity changes and crustal deformation in active volcanic areas. Pure Appl Geophys 161:1453–1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Battaglia M, Troise C, Obrizzo F, Pingue F, De Natale G (2006) Evidence for fluid migration as the cause of unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy). Geophys Res Lett 33 (L01307). doi: 10.1029/2005GL024904
  4. Berardino P, Fornaro G, Lanari R, Sansosti E (2002) A new algorithm for surface deformation monitoring based on small baseline differential SAR interferograms. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 40:2375–2383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Calvert AT, Hildreth W, Fierstein J (2003) Silicic eruptions of the past 50 kyr at the Three Sisters volcanic cluster (abstract). Eos, Trans AGU, 84, Fall Meet., Suppl., Abstract V32D-1049Google Scholar
  6. Chang W-L, Smith RB, Wicks C, Farrell JM, Puskas CM (2007) Accelerated uplift and magmatic intrusion of the Yellowstone caldera, 2004 to 2006. Science 318(5852):952–956. doi: 10.1126/science.1146842 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dong D, Herring TA, King RW (1998) Estimating regional deformation from a combination of space and terrestrial geodetic data. J Geodesy 72:200–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dragoni M, Magnanensi C (1989) Displacement and stress produced by a pressurized, spherical magma chamber, surrounded by a viscoelastic shell. Phys Earth Planet Inter 56:316–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dvorak JJ, Okamura AT (1987) A hydraulic model to explain variations in summit tilt rate at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (editors), Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 1350:1281–1296Google Scholar
  10. Dzurisin D, Lisowski L, Wicks CW, Poland MP, Endo ET (2005) Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 150:35–54. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.07.011 The Changing Shape of Active VolcanoesCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans WC, van Soest MC, Mariner RH, Hurwitz S, Ingebritsen SE, Wicks CW Jr, Schmidt E (2004) Magmatic intrusion west of Three Sisters, central Oregon, USA: The perspective from spring chemistry. Geology 32:69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Federal Geodetic Control Committee (1984) Bossler JD (chairman), Standards and specifications for geodetic control networks. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  13. Feigl K, Dupré E (1999) RNGCHN: a program to calculate displacement components from dislocations in an elastic half-space with applications for modeling geodetic measurements of crustal deformation. Comp Geosci 25:695–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fialko Y, Simons M (2000) Deformation and seismicity in the Coso geothermal area, Inyo County, California: Observations and modeling using satellite radar interferometry. J Geophys Res 105:21–781–21,794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fialko Y, Simons M, Khazan Y (2001) Finite source modeling of Magmatic unrest in Socorro, New Mexico, and Long Valley, California. Geophys J Int 146:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fierstein J, Calvert A, Hildreth W (2003) Two young silicic sisters at Three Sisters volcanic field, Oregon (abstract). Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 34(7):563Google Scholar
  17. Gordon RG, Stein S, DeMets C, Argus DF (1987) Statistical tests for closure of plate motion circuits. Geophys R Lett 14(6):587–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill DP, Langbein JO, Prejean S (2003) Relations between seismicity and deformation during unrest in Long Valley Caldera, California, from 1995 through 1999. J Volcan Geotherm Res 127(3–4):175–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hutnak M, Hurwitz S, Hsieh PA, Ingebritsen SE (2007) Numerical simulations of multi-phase, multi-component hydrothermal fluid flow: Implications for heat and mass transport and deformation of the Yellowstone Caldera. Eos Trans AGU 88 (52), Fall Meet Suppl, Abstract V51F-06Google Scholar
  20. Hutnak M, Hurwitz S, Ingebritsen SE, Hsieh PA (2009) Numerical models of caldera deformation: Effects of multiphase and multicomponent hydrothermal fluid flow. J Geophys Res. 114, B04411. doi:10.1029/2008JB006151
  21. Ingebritsen SE, Mariner RH, Sherrod DR (1994). Hydrothermal systems of the Cascade Range, north-central Oregon. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1044-L, 86 pGoogle Scholar
  22. Jónsson S, Zebker H, Segall P, Amelung F (2002) Fault slip distribution of the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake, estimated from satellite radar and GPS measurements. Bull Seism Soc Am 92:1377–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Langbein J (2004) Two-color electronic distance meter measurements revisited. J Geophys Res, 109 B04406. doi: 10.1029/2003JB002819
  24. Langbein J (2008) Noise in GPS displacement measurements from Southern California and Southern Nevada, J Geophys Res, 113 B04406. doi: 10.1029/2007JB005247
  25. Lohman R and Simons M (2005) Some thoughts on the use of InSAR data to constrain models of surface deformation: noise structure and data downsampling. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 6. doi: 10.1029/2004GC000841
  26. Lowenstern JB, Smith RB, Hill DP (2006) Monitoring super-volcanoes: geophysical and geochemical signals at Yellowstone and other caldera systems. Philos Trans R Soc 264(1845):2055–2072Google Scholar
  27. Lu Z, Wicks C Jr, Dzurisin D, Thatcher W (2000a) Aseismic inflation of Westdahl volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry. Geophys Res Lett 27(11):1567–1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lu Z, Mann D, Freymueller J, Meyer D (2000b) Synthetic aperture radar interferometry of Okmok volcano, Alaska: Radar observations. J Geophys Res 105:10 791–10,806Google Scholar
  29. Lu Z, Wicks C Jr, Power JA, Dzurisin D (2000c) Ground deformation associated with the March 1996 earthquake swarm at Akutan volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry. J Geophys Res 105(B9):21 ,483–21,495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lu Z, Power JA, McConnell VS, Wicks C, Dzurisin D (2002a) Preeruptive inflation and surface interferometric coherence characteristics revealed by satellite radar interferometry at Makushin Volcano, Alaska: 1993–2000. J Geophys Res 107(B11):2266. doi: 10.1029/2001JB000970 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lu Z, Wicks C Jr, Dzurisin D, Power JA, Moran SC, Thatcher W (2002b) Magmatic inflation at a dormant stratovolcano: 1996–1998 activity at Mount Peulik volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry. J Geophys Res 107 (B7). doi:  10.1029/2001/JB000471
  32. Lu Z, Masterlark T, Dzurisin D, Rykhus R, Wicks C Jr (2003) Magma supply dynamics at Westdahl Volcano, Alaska, modeled from satellite radar interferometry. J Geophys Res 108(B7):2354. doi: 10.1029/2002JB002311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lu Z, Wicks C Jr, Kwoun O, Power J, Dzurisin D (2005) Surface deformation associated with the March 1996 earthquake swarm at Akutan Island, Alaska, revealed by C-band ERS and L-band JERS radar interferometry. Can J Remote Sens 31(1):7–20Google Scholar
  34. Lu Z, Dzurisin D, Wicks C Jr, Power J, Kwoun O, Rykhus R (2007) Diverse deformation patterns of Aleutian volcanoes from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). In: Eichelberger, J.C., Gordeev, E., Izbekov, P., Kasahara, M., and Lees, J.M. (editors), Volcanism and Subduction, AGU Monograph Series 172:249–261. doi: 10.1029/172GM18
  35. Mastin LG, Roeloffs Evelyn, Beeler NM, Quick JE (2008) Constraints on the size, overpressure, and volatile content of the Mount St. Helens magma system from geodetic and dome-growth measurements during the 2004–2006+ eruption. Chap. 22 in Sherrod DR, Scott WE, Stauffer PH (eds), A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750, 856 p and DVD-ROMGoogle Scholar
  36. McCaffrey RM, Long MD, Goldfinger C, Zwick PC, Nableck JL, Johnson CK, Smith C (2000) Rotation and plate locking at the southern Cascadia subduction zone. Geophys Res Lett 27:3117–3120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McCaffrey R, Qamar AI, King RW, Wells R, Khazaradze G, Williams CA, Stevens CW, Vollick JJ, Zwick PC (2007) Fault locking, block rotation and crustal deformation in the Pacific Northwest. Geophys J Int . doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03371.x Google Scholar
  38. McKee CO (1997) Lessons from unrest and eruption at Rabaul. In: Program and Abstract 2nd Merapi Decade Volcano International Workshop, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia and UNESCO, 36Google Scholar
  39. McKee C, Talai B, Lauer N, Stewart R, de Saint Ours P, Itikarai I, Patia H, Lolok D, Davies H, Johnson RW (1995). The 1994 eruptions at Rabaul Volcano, Papua New Guinea. International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, General Assembly, 21, Week A, 448Google Scholar
  40. McTigue DF (1987) Elastic stress and deformation near a finite spherical magma body: resolution of the point source paradox. J. Geophys. Res. 92:12,931–12,940.Google Scholar
  41. Mogi K (1958) Relations between the eruptions of various volcanoes and the deformation of the ground surfaces around them. Bull Earthq Res Inst U Tokyo 36:99–134Google Scholar
  42. Newman AV, Dixon TH, Ofoegbu G, Dixon JE (2001) Geodetic and seismic constraints on recent activity at Long Valley caldera, California: Evidence for viscoelastic rheology. J Volcan Geoth Res 105:183–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Newman AV, Dixon TH, Gourmelen N (2006) A four-dimensional viscoelastic deformation model for Long Valley Caldera, California, between 1995 and 2000. J Volcan Geoth Res 150:244–269. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.07.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Okada Y (1985) Surface deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space. Bull Seismol Soc Am 75:1135–1154Google Scholar
  45. Puskas C, Smith RB, Meertens CM, Chang WL (2007) Crustal deformation of the Yellowstone–Snake River Plain volcano-tectonic system; campaign and continuous GPS observations, 1987–2004. J Geophys Res 112 (B03401), doi: 10.1029/2006JB004325
  46. Savage JC, Svarc JL, Prescott, WH (2001a) Strain accumulation near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 1993–1998. J Geophys Res 106:16,483–16,488Google Scholar
  47. Savage JC, Gan W, Svarc JL (2001b) Strain accumulation in the Eastern California Shear Zone. J Geophys Res 106 (B10):21,995–22,007Google Scholar
  48. Scott WE (1987) Holocene rhyodacite eruptions on the flanks of South Sister volcano, Oregon. In: Fink JH (editor), The Emplacement of Silicic Domes and Lava Flows. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 212:35–53Google Scholar
  49. Scott WE, Iverson RM, Schilling SP, Fischer BJ (2001) Volcano hazards in the Three Sisters region, Oregon. US Geol Surv Open-File Report 99-437, 14 pGoogle Scholar
  50. Sherrod DR, Taylor EM, Ferns ML, Scott WE, Conrey RM, Smith GA (2004) Geologic map of the Bend 30- by 60-minute quadrangle, central Oregon. US Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Investigations Map , I-2683, scale 1:100,000 scale, 48-page pamphletGoogle Scholar
  51. Simons M, Fialko Y, Rivera L (2002) Coseismic deformation from the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake, as inferred from InSAR and GPS observations. Bull Seism Soc Am 92:1390–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Svarc JL, Savage JC, Prescott WH, Murray MH (2002) Strain accumulation and rotation in western Oregon and southwestern Washington. J Geophys Res 107. doi: 10.1029/2001/JB000625
  53. Vanicek P, Castle RO, Balazs EI (1980) Geodetic leveling and its applications. Rev Geophys:18, 505–524Google Scholar
  54. Vasco DW, Puskas CM, Smith RB, Meertens CM (2007) Crustal deformation and source models of the Yellowstone volcanic field from geodetic data. J Geophys Res 112 (B03401). doi: 10.1029/2006JB004325
  55. Wicks CW Jr, Dzurisin D, Ingebritsen S, Thatcher W, Lu Z, Iverson J (2002) Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA. Geophys Res Lett 29 (7):26-1–26-4Google Scholar
  56. Wicks C, Thatcher W, Dzurisin D, Svarc J (2006) Uplift, thermal unrest, and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera. Nature 440:72–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Williams SD, Bock Y, Fang P, Jamason P, Nikolaidis RM, Prawirodirdjo L, Miller M, Johnson DJ (2004) Error analysis of continuous GPS position time series. J Geophys Res 109 (B03412). doi: 10.1029/2003JB00274
  58. Wright T J, Parsons BE, Lu Z (2004) Toward mapping surface deformation in three dimensions using InSAR, Geophys Res Lett 31 (L01607). doi: 10.1029/2003GL018827
  59. Wyatt FW (1989) Displacement of surface monuments: Vertical motion. J Geophys Res 94:1655–1664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yang X-M, Davis PM, Dietrich JH (1988) Deformation from inflation of a dipping finite prolate spheroid in an elastic half-space as a model for volcanic stressing. J Geophys Res 93:4249–4257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zumberge JF, Heflin MB, Jefferson DC, Watkins MM, Webb FH (1997) Precise point positioning for the efficient and robust analysis of GPS data from large networks. J Geophys Res 102(B3):5005–5017CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© US Government 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Dzurisin
    • 1
  • Michael Lisowski
    • 1
  • Charles W. Wicks
    • 2
  1. 1.David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano ObservatoryU.S. Geological SurveyVancouverUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Geological SurveyMenlo ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations