Advertisement

Thermal characterization of the Vulcano fumarole field

  • Andrew J. L. Harris
  • Luigi Lodato
  • Jonathan Dehn
  • Letizia Spampinato
Research Article

Abstract

Ground-based thermal infrared surveys can contribute to complete heat budget inventories for fumarole fields. However, variations in atmospheric conditions, plume condensation and mixed-pixel effects can complicate vent area and temperature measurements. Analysis of vent temperature frequency distributions can be used, however, to characterise and quantify thermal regions within a field. We examine this using four thermal infrared thermometer and thermal image surveys of the Vulcano Fossa fumarole field (Italy) during June 2004 and July 2005. These surveys show that regions occupied by low temperature vents are characterised by distributions that are tightly clustered around the mean (i.e., the standard deviation is low), highly peaked (positive kurtosis) and skewed in the low temperature direction (negative skewness). This population is associated with wet fumaroles, where boiling controls maximum temperature to cause a narrow distribution with a mode at 90–100°C. In contrast, high temperature vent regions have distributions that are widely spread about the mean (i.e., the standard deviation is high), relatively flat (negative kurtosis) and skewed in the high temperature direction (positive skewness). In this dry case, fumaroles are water-free so that maximum temperatures are not fixed by boiling. As a result greater temperature variation is possible. We use these results to define two vent types at Vulcano on the basis of their thermal characteristics: (1) concentrated (localized) regions of high temperature vents, and (2) dispersed low temperature vents. These occur within a much larger region of diffuse heat emission across which surfaces are heated by steam condensation, the heat from which causes elevated surface temperatures. For Vulcano's lower fumarole zone, high and low temperature vents occupied total areas of 3 and 6 m2, respectively, and occurred within a larger (430 m2) vent-free zone of diffuse heat emission. For this lower zone, we estimate that 21–43 × 103 W of heat was lost by diffuse heat emission. A further 4.5 × 103 W was lost by radiation from high temperature vents, and 6.5 × 103 W from low temperature vents. Thus, radiative heat losses from high and low temperature vents within Vulcano's lower fumarole zone respectively account for 10% and 15% of the total heat lost from this zone. This shows that radiation from open vents can account for a non-trivial portion of the total fumarole field heat budget.

Keywords

Fumarole Vulcano Thermal image Infrared thermometer Heat flux 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are extremely grateful to Natalie Yakos for extracting the statistical data from the FLIR regions of interest. This manuscript was greatly improved by the suggestions of Giovanni Chiodini, Toby Fischer, Mike James and an anonymous reviewer.

References

  1. Aiuppa A, Federico C, Giudice G, Gurrieri S (2005a) Chemical mapping of a fumarolic field: La Fossa Crater, Vulcano Island (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Geophys Res Lett 32:L13309, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiuppa A, Inguaggiato S, McGonigle AJS, O, Dwyer M, Oppenheimer C, Padgett MJ, Rouwet D, Valenza M (2005b) H2S fluxes from Mt. Etna, Stromboli, and Vulcano (Italy) and implications for the sulfur budget at volcanoes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:1861–1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aubert M (1999) Practical evaluation of steady heat discharge from dormant active volcanoes: case study of Vulcarolo fissure (Mount Etna, Italy). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 92:413–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aubert M, Diliberto S, Finizola A, Chebil Y (2008) Double origin of hydrothermal convective flux variations in the Fossa of Vulcano (Italy). Bull Volcanol, in pressGoogle Scholar
  5. Ball M, Pinkerton H (2006) Factors affecting the accuracy of thermal imaging cameras in volcanology. J Geophys Res 111:B11203, doi: 10.1029/2005JB003829 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barberi F, Neri G, Valenza M, Villari L (1991) 1987–1990 unrest at Vulcano. Acta Vulcanol 1:95–106Google Scholar
  7. Bukumirovic T, Italiano F, Nuccio PM, Pecoraino G, Principio E (1996) Evolution of the fumarolic activity at La Fossa crater of Vulcano. Acta Vulcanol 8:210–212Google Scholar
  8. Bukumirovic T, Italiano F, Nuccio PM (1997) The evolution of a dynamic geological system: the support of a GIS for geochemical measurements at the fumarole field of Vulcano, Italy. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 79:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carapezza M, Nuccio PM, Valenza M (1981) Genesis and evolution of the fumaroles of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands Italy): a geochemical model. Bull Volcanol 44:463–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiodini G, Cioni R, Guidi M, Marini L, Raco B, Taddeucci G (1992) Gas geobarometry in boiling hydrothermal systems: a possible tool to evaluate the hazard of hydrothermal explosions. Acta Vulcanol 2:99–107Google Scholar
  11. Chiodini G, Cioni R, Marini L (1993a) Reactions governing the chemistry of crater fumaroles from Vulcano Island Italy, and implications for volcanic surveillance. Appl Geochem 8:357–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiodini G, Cioni R, Marini L, Raco B, Taddeucci G (1993b) Fumarolic gases geochemistry. Acta Vulcanol 3:280–282Google Scholar
  13. Chiodini G, Cioni R, Marini L, Panichi C, Raco B, Taddeucci G (1994) Fumarolic gases geochemistry (Vulcano). Acta Vulcanol 6:43–46Google Scholar
  14. Chiodini G, Cioni R, Marini L, Panichi C (1995) Origin of the fumarolic fluids of Vulcano Island, Italy and implications for volcanic surveillance. Bull Volcanol 57:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chiodini G, Frondini F, Raco B (1996) Diffuse emission of CO2 from the Fossa crater, Vulcano Island (Italy). Bull Volcanol 58:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chiodini G, Granieri D, Avino R, Caliro S, Costa A. (2005) Carbon dioxide diffuse degassing and estimation of heat release from volcanic and hydrothermal systems. J Geophys Res 110:B08204, doi: 10.1029/2004JB003542
  17. Chiodini G, Vilardo G, Augusti V, Granieri D, Caliro S, Minopoli C, Terranova C (2007) Thermal monitoring of hydrothermal activity by permanent infrared automatic stations: results obtained at Solfatara di Pozzuoli, Campi Flegrei (Italy). J Geophys Res 112:B12206, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005140 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cioni R, D, Amore F (1984) A genetic model for the crater fumaroles of Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy). Geothermics 23:375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dozier J (1981) A method for satellite identification of surface temperature fields of subpixel resolution. Remote Sens Environ 11:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Granieri D, Carapezza ML, Chiodini G, Avino R, Caliro S, Ranaldi M, Ricci T, Tarchini L (2006) Correlated increase in CO2 fumarolic content and diffuse emission from La Fossa crater (Vulcano, Italy): evidence of volcanic unrest or increasing gas release from a stationary deep magma body? Geophys Res Lett 33:L13316, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026460 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hardee HC (1982) Permeable convection above magma bodies. Tectonophysics 84:179–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harris AJL, Maciejewski AJH (2000) Thermal surveys of the Vulcano Fossa fumarole field 1994–1999: evidence for fumarole migration and sealing. J Volcanol Geotherm. Res 102:119–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harris AJL, Stevenson DS (1997a) Thermal observations of degassing open conduits and fumaroles at Stromboli and Vulcano using remotely sensed data. J Volcanol Geothem Res 76:175–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harris AJL, Stevenson DS (1997b) Magma budgets and steady-state activity of Vulcano and Stromboli volcanoes. Geophys Res Lett 24:1043–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. James MR, Robson S, Pinkerton H, Ball M (2006) Oblique photogrammetry with visible and thermal images of active lava flows. Bull Volcanol 69:105–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lagios E, Vassilopoulou S, Sakkas V, Dietrich V, Damiata BN, Ganas A (2007) Testing satellite and ground thermal imaging of low-temperature fumarolic fields: the dormant Nsyros Volcano (Greece). J Photogrammetry Remote Sensing 62:447–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lardy M, Tabbagh A (1999) Measuring and interpreting heat fluxes from shallow volcanic bodies using vertical temperature profiles: a preliminary test. Bull Volcanol 60:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lawrence MG (2005) The relationship between relative humidity and the dewpoint temperature in moist air. Am Met Soc 86:225–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Martini M (1983) Variations in surface manifestations at Vulcano (Aeolian Islands Italy) as a possible evidence of deep processes. Bull Volcanol 46:83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martini M, Piccardi G, Cellini Legittimo P (1980) Geochemical surveillance of active volcanoes: data on the fumaroles of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Bull Volcanol 43:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matsushima N, Kazahaya K, Saito G, Shinohara H (2003) Mass and heat flux of volcanic gas discharging from the summit crater of Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan, during 1996–1999. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 126:285–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mazzarini F, Pareschi MT, Sbrana A, Favali M, Fulignati P (2001) Surface hydrothermal alteration mapping at Vulcano Island using MIVIS data. Int J Remote Sensing 22:2045–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Menyailov IA, Nikitina LP, Shapar VN, Pilipenko VP (1986) Temperature increase and chemical change of fumarolic gases at Momotombo Volcano, Nicaragua, in 1982–1985: are these indicators of a possible eruption? J Geophys Res 91:12199–12214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nuccio PM, Paonita A, Sortino F (1999) Geochemical modeling of mixing between magmatic and hydrothermal gases: the case of Vulcano Island, Italy. Earth Planet Sci Lett 167:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Realmuto VJ, Abrams MJ, Buogiorno F, Pieri DC (1994) The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: a case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986. J Geophys Res 99:481–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sekioka M, Yuhara K (1974) Heat flux estimation in geothermal areas based on the heat balance of the ground surface. J Geophys Res 79:2053–2058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stevenson DS (1993) Physical models of fumarolic flow. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 57:139–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tabbagh A, Trezeguet D (1987) Determination of sensible heat flux in volcanic areas from ground temperature measurements along vertical profiles: the case study of Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy). J Geophys Res 92(B5):3635–3644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tedesco D (1995) Fluid geochemistry at Vulcano island: a change in the volcanic regime or continuous fluctuations in the mixing of different systems? J Geophys Res 100:4157–4167CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew J. L. Harris
    • 1
  • Luigi Lodato
    • 2
  • Jonathan Dehn
    • 3
  • Letizia Spampinato
    • 2
  1. 1.HIGP/SOESTUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia—Sezione di CataniaCataniaItaly
  3. 3.University of Alaska FairbanksFairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations