Bulletin of Volcanology

, 71:301

Emplacement and inflation of natrocarbonatitic lava flows during the March–April 2006 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania

Research Article

Abstract

The most voluminous eruption of natrocarbonatite lava hitherto recorded on Earth occurred at Oldoinyo Lengai in March–April 2006. The lava flows produced in this eruption range from blocky 'a'a type to smooth-surfaced inflated pahoehoe. We measured lava inflation features (i.e. one tumulus and three pressure ridges) that formed in the various pahoehoe flows emplaced in this event. The inflation features within the main crater of Oldoinyo Lengai are relatively small-scale, measuring 1-5 m in width, 2.5–24.4 m in length and with inflation clefts less than 0.4 m deep. Their small sizes are in contrast to a tumulus that formed on the northwestern slope of the volcano (situated ~1140 m below the crater floor). The tumulus is roughly circular, measures 17.5 × 16.0 m, and is cut by a 4.4 m deep axial inflation cleft exposing two separate flow units. We measured the elastic properties (i.e. shear- and bulk moduli) of natrocarbonatitic crust and find that these are similar to those reported for basaltic crust, and that there is no direct correlation between magmastatic head and pressure required to form tumuli. All inflated flows in the 2006 event were confined by lateral barriers (main crater, erosional channel or erosional gully) suggesting that the two most important factors for endogenous growth in natrocarbonatitic lava flows are (1) lateral barriers that prevent widening of the flow, and (2) influx of new material beneath the viscoelastic and brittle crust.

Keywords

Natrocarbonatite Oldoinyo Lengai Inflation Pahoehoe Tumuli Elastic moduli 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Mineralogy and PetrologySwiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich)ZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Nordic Volcanological Center, Institute of Earth SciencesUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland
  3. 3.Swedish Museum of Natural HistoryStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Department of Geology and GeochemistryStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

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