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Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 71, Issue 2, pp 185–199 | Cite as

The viscosity of hydrous dacitic liquids: implications for the rheology of evolving silicic magmas

  • Alan G. Whittington
  • Bridget M. Hellwig
  • Harald Behrens
  • Bastian Joachim
  • André Stechern
  • Francesco Vetere
Research Article

Abstract

The viscosity of a series of six synthetic dacitic liquids, containing up to 5.04 wt% dissolved water, was measured above the glass transition range by parallel-plate viscometry. The temperature of the 1011 Pa s isokom decreases from 1065 K for the anhydrous liquid, to 864 K and 680 K for water contents of 0.97 and 5.04 wt% H2O. Including additional measurements at high temperatures by concentric-cylinder and falling-sphere viscometry, the viscosity (η) can be expressed as a function of temperature and water content w according to: \(\log _{10} {\text{ }}\eta = - 4.43{\text{ }} + {\text{ }}{{\left( {7618.3 - 17.25{\text{ }}\log _{10} {\text{ }}\left[ {w{\text{ }} + {\text{ }}0.26} \right]} \right)} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{\left( {7618.3 - 17.25{\text{ }}\log _{10} {\text{ }}\left[ {w{\text{ }} + {\text{ }}0.26} \right]} \right)} {\left( {T - \left\{ {406.1 - 292.6{\text{ }}\log _{10} {\text{ }}\left[ {w{\text{ }} + {\text{ }}0.26} \right]} \right\}} \right)}}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {\left( {T - \left\{ {406.1 - 292.6{\text{ }}\log _{10} {\text{ }}\left[ {w{\text{ }} + {\text{ }}0.26} \right]} \right\}} \right)}}\) where η is in Pa s, T is temperature in K, and w is in weight percent. Within the conditions of measurement, this parameterization reproduces the 76 viscosity data with a root-mean square deviation (RMSD) of 0.16 log units in viscosity, or 7.8 K in temperature. The measurements show that water decreases the viscosity of the dacitic liquids more than for andesitic liquids, but less than for rhyolites. At low temperatures and high water contents, andesitic liquids are more viscous than the dacitic liquids, which are in turn more viscous than rhyolitic liquids, reversing the trend seen for high temperatures and low water contents. This suggests that the relative viscosity of different melts depends on temperature and water content as much as on bulk melt composition and structure. At magmatic temperatures, rhyolites are orders of magnitude more viscous than dacites, which are slightly more viscous than andesites. During degassing, all three liquids undergo a rapid viscosity increase at low water contents, and both dacitic and andesitic liquids will degas more efficiently than rhyolitic liquids. During cooling and differentiation, changing melt chemistry, decreasing temperature and increasing crystal content all lead to increases in the viscosity of magma (melt plus crystals). Under closed system conditions, where melt water content can increase during crystallization, viscosity increases may be small. Conversely, viscosity increases are very abrupt during ascent and degassing-induced crystallization.

Keywords

Dacite Viscosity Magma rheology Water Degassing Differentiation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by NSF grant EAR-0407915 to Alan Whittington. Additional support by the German DFG (grant Be1720/12) is also acknowledged. Jackie Getson is thanked for laboratory assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan G. Whittington
    • 1
  • Bridget M. Hellwig
    • 1
  • Harald Behrens
    • 2
  • Bastian Joachim
    • 2
  • André Stechern
    • 2
  • Francesco Vetere
    • 3
  1. 1.101 Geological SciencesUniversity of Missouri-ColumbiaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Institut für MineralogieLeibniz Universität HannoverHannoverGermany
  3. 3.Dipartimento Scienze della TerraUniversità della CalabriaArcavacata di Rende (CS)Italy

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