Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 70, Issue 9, pp 1043–1067 | Cite as

Nature and significance of small volume fall deposits at composite volcanoes: Insights from the October 14, 1974 Fuego eruption, Guatemala

  • W. I. Rose
  • S. Self
  • P. J. Murrow
  • C. Bonadonna
  • A. J. Durant
  • G. G. J. Ernst
Research Article

Abstract

The first of four successive pulses of the 1974 explosive eruption of Fuego volcano, Guatemala, produced a small volume (∼0.02 km3 DRE) basaltic sub-plinian tephra fall and flow deposit. Samples collected within 48 h after deposition over much of the dispersal area (7–80 km from the volcano) have been size analyzed down to 8 φ (4 µm). Tephra along the dispersal axis were all well-sorted (σ φ = 0.25–1.00), and sorting increased whereas thickness and median grain size decreased systematically downwind. Skewness varied from slightly positive near the vent to slightly negative in distal regions and is consistent with decoupling between coarse ejecta falling off the rising eruption column and fine ash falling off the windblown volcanic cloud advecting at the final level of rise. Less dense, vesicular coarse particles form a log normal sub-population when separated from the smaller (Mdφ < 3φ or < 0.125 mm), denser shard and crystal sub-population. A unimodal, relatively coarse (Mdφ = 0.58φ or 0.7 mm σ φ = 1.2) initial grain size population is estimated for the whole (fall and flow) deposit. Only a small part of the fine-grained, thin 1974 Fuego tephra deposit has survived erosion to the present day. The initial October 14 pulse, with an estimated column height of 15 km above sea level, was a primary cause of a detectable perturbation in the northern hemisphere stratospheric aerosol layer in late 1974 to early 1975. Such small, sulfur-rich, explosive eruptions may substantially contribute to the overall stratospheric sulfur budget, yet leave only transient deposits, which have little chance of survival even in the recent geologic record. The fraction of finest particles (Mdφ = 4–8φ or 4–63 µm) in the Fuego tephra makes up a separate but minor size mode in the size distribution of samples around the margin of the deposit. A previously undocumented bimodal–unimodal–bimodal change in grain size distribution across the dispersal axis at 20 km downwind from the vent is best accounted for as the result of fallout dispersal of ash from a higher subplinian column and a lower “co-pf” cloud resulting from pyroclastic flows. In addition, there is a degree of asymmetry in the documented grain-size fallout pattern which is attributed to vertically veering wind direction and changing windspeeds, especially across the tropopause. The distribution of fine particles (<8 µm diameter) in the tephra deposit is asymmetrical, mainly along the N edge, with a small enrichment along the S edge. This pattern has hazard significance.

Keywords

Volcanic ash Tephra Subplinian Vulcanian Fallout Guatemala Fuego 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Once again, Samuel B. Bonis is gratefully acknowledged for his sample collection prowess. Jocelyn McPhie, Jacqueline Huntoon and two anonymous reviewers helped to clarify the text and figures. We thank the technical staff at the Institute of Materials Processing, MTU, for their help in Coulter counter analysis. WIR was supported by NSF and NASA. SS received support from NASA grant NSG5131 for the study of atmospheric effects of volcanic eruptions. GGJE was helped by interactions with RSJ Sparks, J Willson, and C Bonadonna, and support from the Nuffield Foundation (NUF-NAL award). The University of Cambridge Physical Geography Laboratories generously allowed AJD use of the Malvern Room facility; in particular Claire Horwell, Steve Boreham and Chris Rolfe are thanked for their assistance and support.

References

  1. Anderson AT Jr. (1984) Probable relations between plagioclase zoning and magma dynamics, Fuego Volcano, Guatemala. Amer Mineral 69(7–8):660–676Google Scholar
  2. Andres RJ, Rose WI, Stoiber RE, Williams SN, Matías O, Morales R (1993) A summary of sulfur dioxide emission rate measurements from Guatemalan volcanoes. Bull Volcanol 55:379–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baxter PJ (1999) Cristobalite in volcanic ash of the Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat: hazards implications. Science 283:1142–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernstein RS, Baxter PJ, Falk H, Ing R, Foster L, Frost F (1986) Immediate health concerns and actions in volcanic eruptions: lesson from the Mount St Helens eruptions, May 18–October 18, 1980. Am J Public Health 76(suppl):25–37Google Scholar
  5. Bonadonna C, Houghton B (2005) Total grain size distribution and volume of tephra-fall deposits. Bull Volcanol 67:441–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonadonna C, Ernst GGJ, Sparks RSJ (1998) Thickness variations and volume estimates of tephra fall deposits: the importance of particle Reynolds number. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 81:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonadonna C, Mayberry GC, Calder ES, Sparks RSJ, Choux C, Jackson, P, Lejeune AM, Loughlin SC, Norton GE, Rose WI, Ryan G, Young SR (2002) Tephra fallout in the eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Geol Soc London Mem 21:483–516Google Scholar
  8. Brazier S, Davis AN, Sigurdsson H, Sparks RSJ (1982) Fallout and deposition of volcanic ash during the 1979 explosive eruption of the Soufriere of St. Vincent. . J Volcanol Geotherm Res 144:335–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brazier S, Sparks RSJ, Carey SN, Sigurdsson H, Westgate JA (1983) Bimodal grain size distribution and secondary thickening in air-fall ash layers. Nature 301:115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buist AS, Martin TR, Short JH, Butler J, Lybarger JA (1986) The development of a multidisciplinary plan for evaluation of long-term health effects of the Mount St Helens eruptions. Am J Public Health 76(suppl):39–44Google Scholar
  11. Carey SN, Sigurdsson H (1982) Influence of particle aggregation on deposition of distal tephra from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano. J Geophys Res 87:7061–7072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carey SN, Sigurdsson H (1986) The 1982 eruptions of El Chichón volcano, Mexico (2): Observations and numerical modelling of tephra-fall distribution. Bull Volcanol 48:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carey SN, Sparks RSJ (1986) Quantitative models of the fall out and dispersal of tephra from volcanic eruption columns. Bull Volcanol 48:109–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carr MJ, Rose WI (1987) CENTAM—a data base of Central American volcanic rocks. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 33(Stoiber Volume):239–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cas RAF, Wright JV (1987) Volcanic successions: modern and ancient. Unwin Hyman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Chesner CA, Rose WI (1984) Geochemistry and evolution of the Fuego volcanic complex, Guatemala. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 21:25–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chesner CA, Halsor SP (1997) Geochemical trends of sequential lava flows from Meseta volcano, Guatemala. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 78:221–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cioni R, Marianelli P, Santacroce R, Sbrana A (2000) Plinian and Subplinian eruptions. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Academic, San Diego, pp 477–495Google Scholar
  19. Davies DK, Quearry MW, Bonis SB (1978) Glowing avalanches from the 1974 eruption of the volcano Fuego, Guatemala. Geol Soc Amer Bull 89:369–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Draxler RR, Hess GD (1998) An overview of the Hysplit 4 modeling system for trajectories, dispersion and deposition. Aust Meteorol Mag 47:295–308Google Scholar
  21. Druitt TH, Young SR, Baptie B, Bonadonna C, Calder ES, Clarke AB, Cole PD, Harford CL, Herd RA, Luckett R, Ryan G, Voight B (2002) Episodes of repetitive Vulcanian explosions and fountain collapse at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999, Geol Soc London, Mem 21:Google Scholar
  22. Ernst GGJ (1996) Dynamics of sediment-laden plumes. Ph D Thesis, U Bristol, UKGoogle Scholar
  23. Ernst GGJ, Davis JP, Sparks RSJ (1994) Bifurcation of volcanic plumes in a crosswind. Bull Volcanol 65:159–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fisher RV, Schmincke H-U (1983) Pyroclastic rocks. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  25. Freundt A, Wilson CJN, Carey SN (2000) Ignimbrites and block-and-ash flow deposits. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of Volcanology. Academic, San Diego, pp 581–599Google Scholar
  26. Gardner CA, Cashman KV, Neal CA (1998) Tephra fall deposits from the 1992 eruption of Crater Peak, Alaska: implications of clast textures for eruptive products. Bull Volcanol 59:537–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gardner JE, Thomas RME, Jaupart C, Tait S (1996) Fragmentation of magma during Plinian volcanic eruptions. Bull Volcanol 58:144–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harris DM, Anderson AT (1984) Volatiles H2O, CO2, and Cl in a subduction related basalt. Contrib Mineral Petrol 87(2):120–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Herzog M, Graf HF, Textor C, Oberhuber JM (1998) The effect of phase changes of water on the development of volcanic plumes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 87:55–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hildreth W, Drake RE (1992) Volcán Quizapu, Chilean Andes. Bull Volcanol 54:93–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoffman DJ, Rosen JM (1977) Balloon observations of the time development of the stratospheric aerosol event of 1974–75. J Geophys Res 82:1435–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huang TC, Watkins ND, Shaw DM (1975) Atmospherically transported volcanic glass in deep-sea sediments: development of a separation and counting technique. Deep-Sea Res 22:185–196Google Scholar
  33. Inman DL (1952) Measures of describing the size distribution of sediments. J Sediment Petrol 22:125–145Google Scholar
  34. Keller J (1980) The island of Vulcano. Soc Italiana Min Petr 36:368–413Google Scholar
  35. Krotkov NA, Torres O, Seftor C, Krueger AJ, Kostinski A, Rose WI, Bluth GJS, Schneider DJ, Shaefer SJ (1998) Comparison of TOMS and AVHRR volcanic ash retrievals from the August 1992 eruption of Mount Spurr. Geophys Res Lett 26:455–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lazrus AL, Cadle RD, Gandrud BW, Greenberg JP, Huebert BJ, Rose WI (1979) Sulfur and halogen chemistry of the stratosphere and of volcanic eruption plumes. J Geophys Res 84:7869–7875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. LeBas MJ, LeMaitre RW, Streckeisen AL, Zanetin B (1986) A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the alkali-solica diagram. J Petrol 27:745–750Google Scholar
  38. Martin DP, Rose WI (1981) Behavior patterns of Fuego volcano, Guatemala. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 10:67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McBirney AR (1973) Factors governing the intensity of andesitic eruptions. Bull Volcanol 37:443–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McCormick MP et al (1978) Post-volcanic stratospheric aerosol decay as measured by Lidar. J Atmos Sci 35:1296–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Meinel AB, Meinel MP (1975) Stratospheric dust-aerosol event of November 1974. Science 188:477–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Morrissey MM, Mastin LG (2000) Vulcanian eruptions. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Academic, San Diego, pp 463–476Google Scholar
  43. Murrow PJ, Rose WI, Self S (1980) Determination of the total grain size distribution in a vulcanian eruption column, and its implications to stratospheric aerosol perturbation. Geophys Res Lett 7:893–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nairn IA, Hewson CAY, Latter JH, Wood CP (1976) Pyroclastic eruptions of Ngauruhoe Volcano, central North Island, New Zealand, 1974 January and March. In: Johnson RW (ed) Volcanism in Australasia. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 385–405Google Scholar
  45. Nairn IA, Self S (1978) Explosive eruptions and pyroclastic avalanches from Ngauruhoe in February 1975. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 3:39–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Neal CA, McGimsey RG, Gardner CA, Harbin ML, Nye CJ (1994) Tephra fall deposits from the 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak. Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska: a preliminary report on distribution, stratigraphy and composition. U S G S Bulletin 2139:65–79Google Scholar
  47. Newell RE (1970) Stratospheric temperature change from the Mt. Agung volcanic eruption of 1963. J Atmos Sci 27:977–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pyle DM (1989) The thickness, volume and grainsize of tephra fall deposits. Bull Volcanol 51:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pyle DM (1990) New estimates for the volume of the Minoan eruption. In Thera and the Aegean World III. Proceedings of the Third International Congress, Santorini, Greece, 3–9 September 1989, Vol 2, pp 113–121Google Scholar
  50. Rampino R, Self S (1984) Sulphur-rich volcanic eruptions and stratospheric aerosols. Nature 310:677–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Riley CM, Rose WI, Bluth GJS (2003) Quantitative shape measurements of distal volcanic ash. Jour Geophys Res 108, no B10-2504 DOI  10.1029/2001JB000818
  52. Roggensack K (2001) Unraveling the 1974 eruption of Fuego Volcano (Guatemala) with small crystals and their young melt inclusions. Geology 29(10):911–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rose WI (1977) Scavenging of volcanic aerosol by ash: atmospheric and volcanologic implications. Geology 5:621–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rose WI, Anderson AT, Woodruff LG, Bonis SB (1978) The October 1974 basaltic tephra from Fuego volcano: description and history of the magma body. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 4:3–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rose WI, Bluth GJS, Schneider DJ, Ernst GGJ, Riley CM, McGimsey RG (2001) Observations of 1992 Crater Peak/Spurr Volcanic Clouds in their first few days of atmospheric residence. J Geology 109:677–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rose WI, Bonis S, Stoiber RE, Keller M, Bickford T (1973) Studies of volcanic ash from two recent Central American eruptions. Bull Volcanol 37:338–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rose WI, Chuan RL, Cadle RD, Woods DC (1980) Small particles in volcanic eruption clouds. Amer Jour Sci 280:671–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rose WI, Delene DJ, Schneider DJ, Bluth GJS, Krueger AJ, Sprod I, McKee C, Davies HL, Ernst GGJ (1995) Ice in the 1994 Rabaul eruption cloud: implications for volcano hazard and atmospheric effects. Nature 375:477–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rose WI, Wunderman RL, Hoffman MF, Gale L (1983) A volcanologist’s review of atmospheric hazards of volcanic activity: Fuego and Mount St. Helens. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 17:133–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rose WI, Stoiber RE, Malinconico LL (1982) Eruptive gas compositions and fluxes of explosive volcanoes; budget of S and Cl emitted from Fuego Volcano, Guatemala. In: Thorpe RS (ed) Andesites: Orogenic Andesites and Related Rocks. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom, pp 669–676Google Scholar
  61. Sarna-Wojicki AM, Shipley S, Waitt RB, Dzurisin D, Wood SH (1981) Areal distribution, thickness, mass, volume and grain size of air-fall ash from the six major eruptions of 1980. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 1250:667–681Google Scholar
  62. Scasso RA, Corbella H, Tiberi P (1994) Sedimentalogical analysis of the tephra from the 12–15 August 1991 eruption of Hudson Volcano. Bull Volcanol 56:121–132Google Scholar
  63. Schneider DJ, Rose WI, Coke LR, Bluth GJS, Sprod I, Krueger AJ (1999) Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR. J Geophys Res 104:4037–4050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Self S (1975) Explosive activity of Ngauruhoe, 27–30 March 1974. NZ J Geol Geophys 18:189–195Google Scholar
  65. Sisson TW, Layne GD (1993) H2O in basalt and basaltic andesite glass inclusions from four subduction-related volcanoes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 117:619–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sparks RSJ (1978) The dynamics of bubble formation and growth in magmas—a review and analysis. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 3:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sparks RSJ (1997) Causes and consequences of pressurization in lava dome eruptions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 150:177–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sparks RSJ, Bursik MI, Carey SN, Gilbert JS, Glaze LS, Sigurdsson H, Woods AW (1997) Volcanic plumes. Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  69. Sparks RSJ, Walker GPL (1977) The significance of vitric-enriched airfall ashes associated with crystal enriched ignimbrites. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 2:329–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sparks RSJ, Wilson L, Sigurdsson H (1981) The pyroclastic deposits of ? the 1875 eruption of Askja, Iceland. Phil Trans Roy Soc London 299:241–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stoiber RE (1974) Eruption of Volcan Fuego—October 14, 1974. Bull Volcanol 38:861–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Textor C, Graf HF, Herzog M, Oberhuber JM, Rose WI, Ernst GGJ (2006a) Volcanic particle aggregation in explosive eruption columns. Part I: Parameterization of the microphysics of hydrometeors and ash. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 150:359–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Textor C, Graf HF, Herzog M, Oberhuber JM, Rose WI, Ernst GGJ (2006b) Volcanic particle aggregation in explosive eruption columns. Part II: Numerical Experiments. J Volcanol Geoth Res 150:378–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vallance JW, Siebert L, Rose WI, Giron JR, Banks NG (1995) Edifice collapse and related hazards in Guatemala. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 66:337–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Varekamp JC, Luhr JF, Prestegaard KL (1984) The 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: mineralogy and petrology of the anhydrite-bearing pumices. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:39–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Volz FE (1975) Volcanic twilights from the Fuego eruption. Science 189:48–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wadge G (1980) Output rate of magma from active central volcanoes. Macmillan Journals, London, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  78. Walker GPL (1981) Characteristics of two phreatoplinian ashes, and their water-flushed origin. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 9:395–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Walker GPL (1973) Explosive volcanic eruptions—a new classification scheme. Geol Rundsch 62:431–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Walker GPL (1980) The Taupo pumice: product of the most powerful known (ultraplinian) eruption. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 8:69–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Walker GPL (1981b) Generation and dispersal of fine ash and dust by volcanic eruptions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 11:81–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Walker GPL (1982) Eruptions of andesitic volcanoes. In: Thorpe RS (ed) Andesites. Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 403–413Google Scholar
  83. Walker GPL, Self S, Wilson L (1984) Tarawera 1886, New Zealand—a basalticPlinian fissure eruption. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 21:61–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wen S, Rose WI (1994) Retrieval of particle sizes and masses in volcanic clouds using AVHRR bands 4 and 5. J Geophys Res 99:5421–5431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wilson L, Huang TC (1979) The influence of shape on the atmospheric settling velocity of volcanic ash particles. Earth Planet Sci Lett 44:311–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wohletz KH, Sheridan MF, Brown WK (1989) Particle size distributions and the sequential fragmentation/transport theory applied to volcanic ash. J Geophys Res 94:15703–15721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wright JV, Smith AL, Self S (1980) A working terminology of pyroclastic deposits. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 8:315–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Young SR, Sparks RSJ, Aspinall WP, Lynch LL, Miller AD, Robinson REA, Shepherd JP (1998) Overview of the eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, July 18, 1995 to December 1997. Geophys Res Lett 25:3389-3392CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. I. Rose
    • 1
  • S. Self
    • 2
  • P. J. Murrow
    • 3
  • C. Bonadonna
    • 5
  • A. J. Durant
    • 1
    • 6
  • G. G. J. Ernst
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Dept. of Geological Engineering and SciencesMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA
  2. 2.Volcano Dynamics Group, Dept. of Earth SciencesThe Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK
  3. 3.Shinshu UniversityMatsueJapan
  4. 4.Mercator & Ortelius Research Centre for Eruption Dynamics, Geological InstituteGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  5. 5.University of South FloridaTampaUSA
  6. 6.School of Geographical Sciences/Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations