Eruptive styles and inferences about plumbing systems at Hidden Cone and Little Black Peak scoria cone volcanoes (Nevada, U.S.A.)
- 220 Downloads
We describe two small scoria cone volcanoes, Hidden Cone and Little Black Peak (ages between ~320–390 ka), in the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field and discuss their eruption mechanisms and inferences about their plumbing systems. Cone-forming pyroclastic deposits are consistent with eruptive styles ranging from Strombolian to violent Strombolian, and lavas emanated from near the bases of the cones. The volcanoes are monogenetic (rather than polycyclic, as allowed by previous geomorphic interpretations). Vents at each volcano appear to coincide with pre-existing normal faults, consistent with observations at older, deeply eroded volcanoes in the region. The existence of these two volcanoes on a topographically high area (particularly Hidden Cone) provides evidence for short feeder dike lengths (~500 m at the surface). We infer that this short length reflects the small length scale of the mantle source region that was tapped to feed each volcano.
KeywordsScoria cone Dike Southwest Nevada Volcanic Field
This work was supported as part of the volcanic risk studies for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Project. We thank Frank Perry for his insights and discussion and for reviewing the manuscript, Don Krier for reviewing the manuscript, and Mike Cline for his management support of the work. Rick Kelley performed GIS volume calculations for Hidden Cone and Little Black Peak and developed Fig. 1, and Andrea Kron did the artwork for Figs. 2, 3 and 4. Comments and suggestions by C. Connor and an anonymous reviewer greatly helped to improve the paper.
- Crowe BM, Perry FV (1991) Preliminary geologic map of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers. Los Alamos Nat Lab Rep LA-12101-MSGoogle Scholar
- Dartevelle S, Valentine GA (2005) Early-time multiphase interactions between basaltic magma and underground openings at the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. Geophys Res Lett 32:L22311. DOI 10.1029/2005GL024172
- Keating GN, Valentine GA, Krier DJ, Perry FV (2007) Shallow plumbing systems for small-volume basaltic volcanoes. Bull VolcanolGoogle Scholar
- Kuntz MA, Anderson SR, Champion DE, Lanphere MA, Grunwald DJ (2002) Tension cracks, eruptive fissures, dikes, and faults related to late Pleistocene-Holocene basaltic volcanism and implications for the distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 353:111–133Google Scholar
- Le Bas MJ, Le Maitre RW, Streckeisen A, Zanettin BA (1986) Chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram. J Petrol 27:745–750Google Scholar
- Minor SA, Orkild PP, Sargent KA, Warren RG, Sawyer DA, Workman JB (1998) Digital geologic map of the Thirsty Canyon NW Quadrangle, Nye CO., Nevada. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 98–623Google Scholar
- Perry FV, Crowe BM, Valentine GA, Bowker LM, eds. (1998) Volcanism studies: final report for the Yucca Mountain Project. Los Alamos Natl Lab Rep LA-13478-MSGoogle Scholar
- Slate JL, Berry ME, Rowley PD, Fridrich CJ, Morgon KS, Workman JB, Young OD, Dixon GL, Williams VS, McKee EH, Ponce DA, Hildebrand TG, Swadley WC, Lundstrom SC, Ekren EB, Warren RG, Cole JC, Fleck RJ, Lanphere MA, Sawyer DA, Minor SA, Grunwald DJ, Laczniak RJ, Menges CM, Yount JC, Jayko AS (1999) Digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. US Geol Surv Open-File Rep 99-554-AGoogle Scholar
- Stock JM, Healy JH (1988) Stress field at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. US Geol Surv Bull 1790:87–93Google Scholar
- Valentine GA, Perry FV, Krier D, Keating GN, Kelley RE, Cogbill AH (2006) Small-volume basaltic volcanoes: eruptive products and processes, and post-eruptive geomorphic evolution in Crater Flat (Pleistocene), southern Nevada. Geol Soc Am Bull 118:1313–1330. DOI 10.1130/B25956.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wahl RR, Sawyer DA, Minor SA, Carr MD, Cole JC, Swadley WC, Laczniak RJ, Warren RG, Green KS, Engle CM (1997) Digital geologic map database of the Nevada Test Site area, Nevada. U S Geol Surv Open File Rep 97–140Google Scholar