Bulletin of Volcanology

, 69:701 | Cite as

Directed blasts and blast-generated pyroclastic density currents: a comparison of the Bezymianny 1956, Mount St Helens 1980, and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat 1997 eruptions and deposits

  • Alexander Belousov
  • Barry Voight
  • Marina Belousova
Review Article

Abstract

We compare eruptive dynamics, effects and deposits of the Bezymianny 1956 (BZ), Mount St Helens 1980 (MSH), and Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat 1997 (SHV) eruptions, the key events of which included powerful directed blasts. Each blast subsequently generated a high-energy stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) with a high speed at onset. The blasts were triggered by rapid unloading of an extruding or intruding shallow magma body (lava dome and/or cryptodome) of andesitic or dacitic composition. The unloading was caused by sector failures of the volcanic edifices, with respective volumes for BZ, MSH, and SHV c. 0.5, 2.5, and 0.05 km3. The blasts devastated approximately elliptical areas, axial directions of which coincided with the directions of sector failures. We separate the transient directed blast phenomenon into three main parts, the burst phase, the collapse phase, and the PDC phase. In the burst phase the pressurized mixture is driven by initial kinetic energy and expands rapidly into the atmosphere, with much of the expansion having an initially lateral component. The erupted material fails to mix with sufficient air to form a buoyant column, but in the collapse phase, falls beyond the source as an inclined fountain, and thereafter generates a PDC moving parallel to the ground surface. It is possible for the burst phase to comprise an overpressured jet, which requires injection of momentum from an orifice; however some exploding sources may have different geometry and a jet is not necessarily formed. A major unresolved question is whether the preponderance of strong damage observed in the volcanic blasts should be attributed to shock waves within an overpressured jet, or alternatively to dynamic pressures and shocks within the energetic collapse and PDC phases. Internal shock structures related to unsteady flow and compressibility effects can occur in each phase. We withhold judgment about published shock models as a primary explanation for the damage sustained at MSH until modern 3D numerical modeling is accomplished, but argue that much of the damage observed in directed blasts can be reasonably interpreted to have been caused by high dynamic pressures and clast impact loading by an inclined collapsing fountain and stratified PDC. This view is reinforced by recent modeling cited for SHV. In distal and peripheral regions, solids concentration, maximum particle size, current speed, and dynamic pressure are diminished, resulting in lesser damage and enhanced influence by local topography on the PDC. Despite the different scales of the blasts (devastated areas were respectively 500, 600, and >10 km2 for BZ, MSH, and SHV), and some complexity involving retrogressive slide blocks and clusters of explosions, their pyroclastic deposits demonstrate strong similarity. Juvenile material composes >50% of the deposits, implying for the blasts a dominantly magmatic mechanism although hydrothermal explosions also occurred. The character of the magma fragmented by explosions (highly viscous, phenocryst-rich, variable microlite content) determined the bimodal distributions of juvenile clast density and vesicularity. Thickness of the deposits fluctuates in proximal areas but in general decreases with distance from the crater, and laterally from the axial region. The proximal stratigraphy of the blast deposits comprises four layers named A, B, C, D from bottom to top. Layer A is represented by very poorly sorted debris with admixtures of vegetation and soil, with a strongly erosive ground contact; its appearance varies at different sites due to different ground conditions at the time of the blasts. The layer reflects intense turbulent boundary shear between the basal part of the energetic head of the PDC and the substrate. Layer B exhibits relatively well-sorted fines-depleted debris with some charred plant fragments; its deposition occurred by rapid suspension sedimentation in rapidly waning, high-concentration conditions. Layer C is mainly a poorly sorted massive layer enriched by fines with its uppermost part laminated, created by rapid sedimentation under moderate-concentration, weakly tractive conditions, with the uppermost laminated part reflecting a dilute depositional regime with grain-by-grain traction deposition. By analogy to laboratory experiments, mixing at the flow head of the PDC created a turbulent dilute wake above the body of a gravity current, with layer B deposited by the flow body and layer C by the wake. The uppermost layer D of fines and accretionary lapilli is an ash fallout deposit of the finest particles from the high-rising buoyant thermal plume derived from the sediment-depleted pyroclastic density current. The strong similarity among these eruptions and their deposits suggests that these cases represent similar source, transport and depositional phenomena.

Keywords

Directed blast Lateral blast Pyroclastic surge Pyroclastic density current Shock wave Stratified flow Fountain collapse Dynamic pressure Overpressured jet Debris avalanche Bezymianny Mount St Helens Soufrière Hills Montserrat 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Tim Druitt for his thorough constructive review, an anonymous reviewer, and John Stix for remarks and careful editorial work. We likewise acknowledge support and insights from colleagues at Mount St. Helens, particularly CD Miller, RP Hoblitt, R Waitt, HX Glicken, S Kieffer, R Christiansen, D Peterson, and RV Fisher, among others mostly represented as the authors of USGS PP 1250; colleagues at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Kamchatka, particularly A Petukhin and M Alidibirov; and co-workers and staff at Montserrat Volcano Observatory as represented by RSJ Sparks, SR Young, and the authors of Geological Society Memoir 21. We salute the pioneers of directed blast studies, GS Gorshkov at Kamchatka and the Kuriles, DR Crandell and D Mullineaux in the Cascade Range, and A LaCroix in the Caribbean region. Rocky Crandell is responsible for inviting BV’s hazards and research participation at St Helens, and BV is grateful for this. The research of K Wohletz and G Valentine provided important insights on blast dynamics. BV is indebted especially to colleagues A Neri, T Esposti Ongaro, A Clarke, and C Widiwijayanti for the privilege and pleasure of our continued collaborative modeling research. C. Widiwijayanti also aided the submission of the manuscript. This research was financed chiefly by grants from the US Civilian Research & Development Foundation, and the Petrology-Geochemistry Program of NSF, with additional support by the volcano observatory organizations noted above.

References

  1. Alidibirov M (1994) A model for viscous magma fragmentation during volcanic blasts. Bull Volcanol 56:459–465Google Scholar
  2. Alidibirov M, Dingwell DB (1996) Magma fragmentation by rapid decompression. Nature 380:146–148Google Scholar
  3. Aspinall WP, Miller AD, Lynch LL, Latchman JL, Stewart RC, White RA, Power JA (1998) Soufrière Hills eruption, Montserrat, 1995–1997: volcanic earthquake locations and fault plane solutions. Geophys Res Lett 25:3397–3400Google Scholar
  4. Banks NG, Hoblitt RP (1981) Summary of temperature studies of 1980 deposits. In: Lipman PV, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:295–315Google Scholar
  5. Banks NG, Hoblitt RP (1996) Direct temperature measurements of deposits, Mount St. Helens, Washington, 1980–1981. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1387:1–76Google Scholar
  6. Barclay J, Carroll MR, Rutherford MJ, Murphy MD, Devine JD, Gardner J, Sparks RSJ (1998) Experimental phase equilibria constraints on pre-eruptive storage conditions of the Soufrière Hills magma. Geophys Res Lett 25:3437–3440Google Scholar
  7. Baxter PJ, Boyle R, Cole F, Neri A, Spence R, Zuccaro G (2005) The impacts of pyroclastic surges on buildings at the eruption of the Soufriere Hills Volcanol, Montserrat Bull Volcano 67:292–313Google Scholar
  8. Beget J, Kienle J (1992) Cyclic formation of debris avalanches at Mount St Augustine volcano. Nature 356:701–704Google Scholar
  9. Belousov A (1995) The Shiveluch volcanic eruption of 12 November 1964: explosive eruption provoked by failure of the edifice. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 66:357–365Google Scholar
  10. Belousov A (1996) Pyroclastic deposits of March 30, 1956 directed blast at Bezymianny volcano. Bull Volcanol 57:649–662Google Scholar
  11. Belousov A, Belousova M (1996) Large scale landslides on active volcanoes in the 20th century—Examples from the Kurile–Kamchatka region (Russia). In: Senneset K (ed) Landslides. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 953–957Google Scholar
  12. Belousov A, Belousova M (1998) Bezymyannyi eruption on March 30, 1956 (Kamchatka): sequence of events and debris avalanche deposits. Volcanol Seismol 20:29–47Google Scholar
  13. Belousov AB, Bogoyavlenskaya GE (1988) Debris avalanche of the 1956 Bezymianny eruption. Proc. Kagoshima Int Conf on Volcanoes: 460–462Google Scholar
  14. Belousov A, Belousova M, Voight B (1999) Multiple edifice failures, debris avalanches and associated eruptions in the Holocene history of Shiveluch volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Bull Volcanol 61:324–342Google Scholar
  15. Belousov A, Voight B, Belousova M, Petukhin A (2002) Powerful pyroclastic surge in the May 8–10, 1997 explosive eruption of Bezymianny volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Bull Volcanol 64:455–471Google Scholar
  16. Belousova M, Belousov A (1995) Prehistoric and 1933 debris avalanches and associated eruptions of Harimkotan Volcano (Kurile islands) Periodico di Mineralogia 64:99–101Google Scholar
  17. Bogoyavlenskaya GE (1962) Agglomerate flow Bezymianny Volcano. Bull Volcanol 24:203–210Google Scholar
  18. Bogoyavlenskaya GE, Kirsanov IT (1981) Twenty five years of volcanic activity of Bezymianny (in Russian). Volcanol Seismol 2:3–13Google Scholar
  19. Bogoyavlenskaya GE, Braitseva OA, Melekestsev IV, Maximov AP, Ivanov BV (1991) Bezymianny volcano. In: Fedotov SA (ed) Active volcanoes of Kamchatka. V 1. Nauka, Moscow, pp 166–197Google Scholar
  20. Boudon G, Lajoie J (1989) The 1902 Peléean deposits in the Fort Cemetery of St Pierre, Martinique: a model for the accumulation of turbulent nuées ardentes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 38:113–129Google Scholar
  21. Boudon G, Semet M, Vincent P (1984) Flank failure—directed blast eruption at Soufrière, Guadeloupe, French West Indies: a 3,000-yr-old Mt St Helens? Geology 12:350–353Google Scholar
  22. Bourdier JL, Boudon G, Gourgaud A (1989) Stratigraphy of the 1902 and 1929 nuée-ardente deposits, Mt Pelée, Martinique. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 38:77–96Google Scholar
  23. Braitseva OA, Melekestsev IV, Bogoyavlenskaya GE, Maximov AP (1991) Bezymianny: eruptive history and dynamics. Volcanol Seismol 12:165–195Google Scholar
  24. Branney MJ, Kokelaar P (2002) Pyroclastic density currents and the sedimentaion of ignimbrites. Geol Soc Mem, London 27:1–152Google Scholar
  25. Brantley SR, Waitt RB (1988) Interrelations among pyroclastic surge, pyroclastic flow, and lahars in the Smith Creek valley during the first minutes of 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA. Bull Volcanol 50:304–326Google Scholar
  26. Brodsky EE, Kanamori H, Sturtevant B (1999) A seismically constrained mass discharge rate for the initiation of the May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption. J Geophys Res 104:29, 389–29, 400Google Scholar
  27. Bursik MI, Woods AW (1996) The dynamics and thermodynamics of large ash flows. Bull Volcanol 58:175–193Google Scholar
  28. Bursik MI, Kurbatov A, Sheridan M, Woods AW (1998) Transport and deposition in the May 18 1980 Mount St Helens blast. Geology 28:155–158Google Scholar
  29. Cantagrel J, Arnaud N, Ancochea E, Fuster J, Huertas M (1999) Repeated debris avalanches on Tenerife and genesis of Las Canadas caldera wall (Canary Islands). Geology 27:739–742Google Scholar
  30. Carey S, Sigurdsson H, Gardner JE, Criswell W (1990) Variations in column height and magma discharge during the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 43:99–112Google Scholar
  31. Carey S, Gardner J, Sigurdsson H (1995) The intensity and magnitude of Holocene plinian eruptions from Mount St Helens volcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 66:185–202Google Scholar
  32. Cashman KV (1992) Groundmass crystallization of Mount St. Helens dacite, 1980–1986: a tool for interpreting shallow magmatic processes. Contrib Mineral Petrol 109:431–449Google Scholar
  33. Cashman KV, Blundy J (2000) Degassing and crystallization of ascending andesite. Phil Trans Royal Soc London 358:1487–1513Google Scholar
  34. Cashman KV, Hoblitt RP (2004) Magmatic precursors to the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens. Geology 32:141–144Google Scholar
  35. Choux C, Druitt T (2002) Analogue study of particle segregation in pyroclastic density currents, with implications for the emplacement mechanisms of large ignimbrites. Sedimentology 49:907–928Google Scholar
  36. Choux C, Druitt T, Thomas N (2004) Stratification and particle segregation in flowing polydisperse suspensions, with applications to the transport and deposition of pyroclastic density currents. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 138:223–241Google Scholar
  37. Clarke AB, Voight B (2000) Pyroclastic current dynamic pressures from aerodynamics of tree or pole blow-down. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 100:395–412Google Scholar
  38. Clarke AB, Hidayat D, Voight B (1997) Pyroclastic current speedometer/densitometer from dynamics of tree or pole blow-down. In: IAVCEI General Assembly: Volcanic Activity and the Environment, p 8Google Scholar
  39. Clarke AB, Neri A, Macedonio G, Voight B (2002a) Transient dynamics of Vulcanian explosions and column collapse. Nature 415:897–901Google Scholar
  40. Clarke AB, Neri A, Voight B, Macedonio G, Druitt T (2002b) Computational modeling of the transient dynamics of August 1997 Vulcanian exposions at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:319–348Google Scholar
  41. Clavero JE, Sparks RSJ, Huppert HE, Dade WB (2002) Geological constraints on the emplacement mechanism of the Parinacota debris avalanche, northern Chile. Bull Volcanol 64:40–54Google Scholar
  42. Crandell DR (1987) Deposits of pre-1980 pyroclastic flows and lahars from Mount St Helens volcano, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Paper 1444:1–91Google Scholar
  43. Crandell DR, Hoblitt R (1986) Lateral blasts at Mount St. Helens and hazard zonation. Bull Volcanol 48:27–37Google Scholar
  44. Criswell CW (1987) Chronology and pyroclastic stratigraphy of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St Helens, Washington. J Geophys Res 92:10,237–10,266Google Scholar
  45. Deplus C, Le Friant A, Boudon G, Komorowski J-C, Villemant B, Harford C, Segoufin J, Cheminee J-L (2001) Submarine evidence for large-scale debris avalanches in the Lesser Antilles Arc. Earth Planet Sci Lett 192:145–157Google Scholar
  46. Donnadieu F, Merle O (1998) Experiments in the indentation process during cryptodome intrusions: new insights into Mount St. Helens deformation. Geology 26:79–82Google Scholar
  47. Donnadieu F, Merle O (2001) Geometrical constraints of the 1980 Mount St. Helens intrusion from analogue models. Geophys Res Lett 28:639–642Google Scholar
  48. Druitt TH (1992) Emplacement of the 18 May 1980 lateral blast deposit ENE of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Bull Volcanol 54:554–573Google Scholar
  49. Druitt TH (1998) Pyroclastic density currents. In: Gilbert JS, Sparks RSJ (eds). The physics of explosive volcanic eruptions. Geological Society Special Publications no. 145. Geological Society, London, 21, pp. 145–182Google Scholar
  50. Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) (2002) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Geol Soc London Memoir 21:1–845Google Scholar
  51. Druitt TH, Young S, Baptie B, Calder E, Clarke A, Cole P, Harford C, Herd R, Luckett R, Ryan G, Sparks S, Voight B (2002a) Episodes of cyclic Vulcanian explosive activity with fountain collapse at Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:281–306Google Scholar
  52. Druitt TH, Calder ES, Cole PD, Hoblitt RP, Loughlin SC, Norton GE, Ritchie LJ, Sparks RS, Voight B (2002b) Small-volume, highly mobile pyroclastic flows formed by rapid sedimentation from pyroclastic surges at Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat: an important volcanic hazard. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:263–280Google Scholar
  53. Dzurisin D, Vallance JW, Gerlach TM, Moran SC, Malone SC (2005) Mount St Helens reawakens. EOS Trans AGU 86(3):25–36Google Scholar
  54. Eichelberger JC, Hayes DB (1982) Magmatic model of the Mount St Helens blast of May 18, 1980. J Geophys Res 87:7727–7738Google Scholar
  55. Eichelberger JC, Carrigan CR, Westrich HR, Price RH (1986) Non-explosive silicic volcanism. Nature 323:598–602Google Scholar
  56. Elsworth D, Voight B (2001) The mechanics of harmonic gas pressurization and failure of lava domes. Geophys J Int 145:187–198Google Scholar
  57. Esposti Ongaro T, Clarke AB, Neri A, Voight B, Widiwidjayanti C (1995a) A high-performance 3D multiphase flow code to simulate directed blasts and their pyroclastic density currents: example from the Boxing Day event, Montserrat. Programme and Abstracts, Soufriere Hills Volcano — Ten Years On,... Scientific Conference, MontserratGoogle Scholar
  58. Esposti Ongaro T, Clarke AB, Neri A, Voight B, Widiwidjayanti C (1995b) A new high-performance 3D multiphase flow code to simulate directed blasts and their pyroclastic density currents: example from the Boxing Day event, Montserrat. EOS Trans AGU 86(52), Fall Meet Suppl, Abs V3D-0645Google Scholar
  59. Esposti Ongaro T, Neri A, Clarke AB, Voight B, Widiwidjayanti C (2007) Fluid dynamics of the 1997 Boxing Day volcanic blast on Montserrat, W.I. J Geophys Res (in press)Google Scholar
  60. Fink JH, Kieffer SW (1993) Estimate of pyroclastic flow velocities resulting from explosive decompression of lava domes. Nature 363:612–615Google Scholar
  61. Fisher RV (1990) Transport and deposition of a pyroclastic surge across an area of high relief: the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Geol Soc Am Bull 102:1038–1054Google Scholar
  62. Fisher RV, Glicken HX, Hoblitt RP (1987) May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens deposits in South Coldwater Creek, Washington. J Geophys Res 92:10267–10283Google Scholar
  63. Formenti Y, Druitt T (2003) Vesicle connections in pyroclastics and implications for the fluidization of fountain-collapse pyroclastic flows, Montserrat (West Indies). Earth Plan Sci Lett 214:561–574Google Scholar
  64. Foxworthy BL, Hill M (1982) Volcanic eruptions of 1980 at Mount St Helens—the first 100 days. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1249:1–125Google Scholar
  65. Francis PW, Wells GL (1988) Landsat Thematic Mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes. Bull Volcanol 50:258–278Google Scholar
  66. Glasstone S, Dolan PJ (1977) The effects of nuclear weapons. US Dept Defense and US Energy Res Develop Admin, third edn. US Gov Printing Office, Washington DC, pp 1–653Google Scholar
  67. Glicken H (1998) Rockslide-debris avalanche of May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington. Bull Geol Soc Japan 49:55–106Google Scholar
  68. Glicken G, Nakamura Y (1988) Restudy of the 1888 eruption of Bandai volcano, Japan. In: Proc Kagoshima Int Conf Volcanoes, Japan, pp 392–395Google Scholar
  69. Gorshkov GS (1959) Gigantic eruption of the Bezymianny volcano. Bull Volcanol 20:77–109Google Scholar
  70. Gorshkov GS (1962) On the classification and terminology of Pelee and Katmai type eruptions. Bull Volcanol 24:155–165Google Scholar
  71. Gorshkov GS (1963) Directed volcanic blasts. Bull Volcanol 26:83–88Google Scholar
  72. Gorshkov GS, Bogoyavlenskaya GE (1965) Bezymianny volcano and peculiarities of its last eruption (1955–1963). Nauka, Moscow, pp 1–171, (in Russian)Google Scholar
  73. Hart K, Carey S, Sigurdsson H, Sparks RSJ (2004) Discharge of pyroclastic flows into the sea during the 1996–1998 eruptions of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Bull Volcanol 66:599–614Google Scholar
  74. Hausback BP, Swanson DA (1990) Record of prehistoric debris avalanches on the north flank of Mount St. Helens volcano, Washington. Geosci Can 17:142–145Google Scholar
  75. Hoblitt RP (1986) Observations of the eruptions of July 22 and August 7, 1980, at Mount St Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1335:1–44Google Scholar
  76. Hoblitt RP (2000) Was the 18 May 1980 lateral blast at Mt St Helens the product of two explosions? Phil Trans Royal Soc London 358:1639–1661Google Scholar
  77. Hoblitt RP, Harmon R (1993) Bimodal density distribution of cryptodome dacite from the 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens, Washington. Bull Volcanol 55:421–438Google Scholar
  78. Hoblitt RP, Miller CD (1984) Comments and reply on “Mount St. Helens 1980 and Mount Pelée 1902—flow or surge?” Geology 12:692–693Google Scholar
  79. Hoblitt RP, Crandell D, Mullineaux D (1980) Mount St Helens eruptive behavior during the past 1.500 yr. Geology 8:555–559Google Scholar
  80. Hoblitt RP, Miller CD, Vallance JW (1981) Origin and stratigraphy of the deposit produced by the May 18 directed blast. In: Lipman P W, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:401–419Google Scholar
  81. JANNAF [Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force] (1975) Handbook of rocket exhaust plume technologyGoogle Scholar
  82. Kadik AA, Maksimov AP, Ivanov BV (1986) Physico-chemical conditions of crystallisation and origin of andesites (on examples of Kluchevskaya Group of volcanoes). Nauka, Moscow, pp 1–158, (in Russian)Google Scholar
  83. Kieffer SW (1981) Fluid dynamics of the May 18 blast at Mount St. Helens. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:379–401Google Scholar
  84. Kieffer SW (1984) Factors governing the structure of volcanic jets. In: Explosive volcanism: inception, evolution, and hazards. National Academy, Washington, pp 143–157Google Scholar
  85. Kieffer SW, Sturtevant B (1984) Laboratory studies of volcanic jets. J Geophys Res 89:8253–8268Google Scholar
  86. Kieffer SW, Sturtevant B (1988) Erosional furrows formed during the lateral blast at Mount St Helens, May 18 1980. J Geophys Res 93:14793–14816Google Scholar
  87. Kneller BC, Bennett SJ, McCaffrey WD (1999) Velocity structure, turbulence and fluid stresses in experimental gravity currents. J Geophys Res 104:5381–5391Google Scholar
  88. Lacroix A (1904) La Montagne Pelée et ses eruptions. Masson, Paris, pp 1–650Google Scholar
  89. Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) (1981) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:1–844Google Scholar
  90. Lipman PW, Moore JG, Swanson DA (1981) Bulging of the north flank before the May 18 eruption—geodetic data. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:143–156Google Scholar
  91. Lowe DR (1982) Sediment gravity flows: II. Depositional models with special reference to the deposits of high-density turbidity currents. J Sediment Petrol 52:279–297Google Scholar
  92. Mayberry GC, Rose WI, Bluth GJS (2002) Dynamics of volcanic and meteorological clouds produced on 26 December (Boxing Day) 1997 at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:539–556Google Scholar
  93. Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (1999) Non-linear dynamics of lava dome extrusion. Nature 402:37–41Google Scholar
  94. Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (2002) Dynamics of magma ascent and lava extrusion at the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:153–171Google Scholar
  95. Merzbacher C, Eggler DH (1984) A magmatic geohygrometer: application to Mount St. Helens and other dacitic magmas. Geology 12:587–590Google Scholar
  96. Middleton GV, Neal WJ (1990) Experiments on the thickness of beds deposited by turbidity currents. J Sediment Petrol 59:297–307Google Scholar
  97. Moore JG, Albee WC (1981) Topographic and structural changes, March–July 1980 — photogrammetric data. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:123–134Google Scholar
  98. Moore JG, Rice CJ (1984) Chronology and character of the May 18, 1980, explosive eruptions of Mount St Helens. In: explosive volcanism: inception, evolution, and hazards. National Academy, Washington, pp 133–142Google Scholar
  99. Moore JG, Sisson TW (1981) Deposits and effects of the May 18 pyroclastic surge. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:421–438Google Scholar
  100. Moriya I (1980) “Bandaian eruption” and landforms associated with it. In: collection of articles in memory of retirement of Prof. K. Nishimura from Tohoku University. Fac Sci Tohoku Univ, Sendai: 214–219 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  101. Mullineaux DR (1986) Summary of pre-1980 tephra-fall deposits erupted from Mount St. Helens, Washington State, USA. Bull Volcanol 48:17–26Google Scholar
  102. Mullineaux DR, Crandell DR (1981) The eruptive history of Mount St. Helens. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof. Pap 1250:3–16Google Scholar
  103. Murphy MD, Sparks RSJ, Barclay J, Carroll MR, Brewer TS (2000) Remobilisation origin for andesite magma by intrusion of mafic magma at the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, WI: a trigger for renewed eruption. J Petrol 41:21–42Google Scholar
  104. Palmer B, Alloway B, Neall V (1991) Volcanic debris-avalanche deposits in New Zealand—lithofacies organization in unconfined, wet-avalanche flows. In: Fisher RV, Smith GA (eds) Sedimentation in volcanic settings. SEPM Spec Publ 45:89–98Google Scholar
  105. Ritchie L, Cole P, Sparks PSJ (2002) Sedimentology of pyroclastic density current deposits generated by the December 26, 1997 eruption at the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt T, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995–1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:435–456Google Scholar
  106. Robertson R, Cole P, Sparks RSJ, Harford C, Lejeune AM, McGuire WJ, Miller AD, Murphy MD, Norton G, Stevens NF, Young SR (1998) The explosive eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, West Indies, September 17, 1996. Geophys Res Lett 25:3429–3433Google Scholar
  107. Robertson RA, Aspinall WR, Herd RA, Norton GE, Sparks RSJ, Young R (2000) The 1995–1998 eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, WI. Phil Trans Royal Soc London 358:1619–1637Google Scholar
  108. Roobol M, Smith A (1998) Pyroclastic stratigraphy of the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat—implications for the present eruption. Geophys Res Lett 25:3393–3396Google Scholar
  109. Rutherford MJ, Devine JD (1988) The May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens. Stability and chemistry of amphibole in the magma chamber. J Geophys Res 93:11,949–11,959Google Scholar
  110. Rutherford MJ, Sigurdsson H, Carey S, Davis AN (1985) The May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St Helens. Melt composition and experimental phase equilibria. J Geophys Res 90:2929–2947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Scandone R, Malone SD (1985) Magma supply, magma discharge and readjustment of the feeding system of Mount St. Helens during 1980. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:239–262Google Scholar
  112. Sekiya S, Kikuchi Y (1889) The eruption of Bandai-san. Tokyo Imp Univ Coll Sci J 3:91–172Google Scholar
  113. Siebe C, Komorowski J-C, Sheridan MF (1992) Morphology and emplacement of an unusual debris-avalanche deposit at Jocotitlan volcano, Central Mexico. Bull Volcanol 54:573–589Google Scholar
  114. Siebe C, Macias JL, Abrams M, Rodriguez S, Castro R, Delgado H (1995) Quaternary explosive volcanism and pyroclastic deposits in East Central Mexico: implications for future hazards. Field trip guide book 1 for Geol Soc Am Ann Mtg: 1–47Google Scholar
  115. Siebert L (1984) Large volcanic debris avalanches: characteristics of source areas, deposits and associated eruptions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 22:163–197Google Scholar
  116. Siebert L (1996) Hazards of large volcanic debris avalanches and associated eruptive phenomena. In: Scarpa R, Tilling R (eds) Monitoring and mitigation of volcano hazards. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 541–572Google Scholar
  117. Siebert L, Glicken H, Ui T (1987) Volcanic hazards from Bezymianny- and Bandai-type eruptions. Bull Volcanol 49:435–459Google Scholar
  118. Siebert L, Beget J, Glicken H (1995) The 1883 and late-prehistoric eruptions of Augustine volcano, Alaska. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 66:367–395Google Scholar
  119. Simpson JE (1987) Gravity currents in the environment and in the laboratory. Halstead, New York, pp 1–244Google Scholar
  120. Sisson TW (1995) Blast ashfall deposit of May 18, 1980 Mount St Helens, Washington. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 66:203–216Google Scholar
  121. Sousa J, Voight B (1995) Multiple-pulsed debris avalanche emplacement at Mount St Helens in 1980. Evidence from numerical continuum flow simulations. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 66:227–250Google Scholar
  122. Sparks RSJ (1983) Discussion on “Mt. Pelée, Martinique; May 8 and 20, 1902 pyroclastic flows and surges”. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 19:175–180Google Scholar
  123. Sparks RSJ (1997) Causes and consequences of pressurization in lava dome eruptions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 150:177–189Google Scholar
  124. Sparks RSJ, Wilson L, Hulme G (1978) Theoretical modeling of the generation, movement and emplacement of pyroclastic flows by column collapse. J Geophys Res 83:1727–1739Google Scholar
  125. Sparks RSJ, Moore JG, Rice CJ (1986) The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St Helens. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 28:257–274Google Scholar
  126. Sparks RSJ, Bursik ME, Carey SN, Gilbert JS, Glaze LS, Sigurdsson H, Woods AW (1997) Volcanic plumes. Wiley, New York, pp 1–574Google Scholar
  127. Sparks RSJ, Murphy MD, Lejeune AM, Watts RB, Barclay J, Young S (2000) Control on the emplacement of the andesite lava dome of the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat by degassing-induced crystallization. Terra Nova 12:1–20Google Scholar
  128. Sparks RSJ, Barclay J, Calder ES, Herd RA, Luckett R, Norton GE, Pollard L, Robertson RA, Ritchie L, Voight B, Young SR, Woods AW (2002) Generation of a debris avalanche and violent pyroclastic density current: the Boxing Day eruption of 26 December 1997 at the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt T, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995–1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:409–434Google Scholar
  129. Taylor GA (1958) The 1951 eruption of Mount Lamington, Papua. Bur Min Res Geol Geophys Bull 38:1–112Google Scholar
  130. Valentine GA (1987) Stratified flow in pyroclastic surges. Bull Volcanol 49:616–630Google Scholar
  131. Valentine GA (1998a) Damage to structures by pyroclastic flows and surges, inferred from nuclear weapons effects. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 87:117–140Google Scholar
  132. Valentine GA (1998b) Eruption column physics. In: Freund A, Rosi M (eds) From magma to tephra. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 91–138Google Scholar
  133. Valentine GA, Wohletz KH (1989) Numerical models of Plinian eruption columns and pyroclastic flows. J Geophys Res 94:1867–1887Google Scholar
  134. Voight B (1981) Time scale for the first movements of the May 18 eruption. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:69–86Google Scholar
  135. Voight B (2000) Structural stability of andesite volcanoes and lava domes. Phil Trans Royal Soc London 358:1663–1703Google Scholar
  136. Voight B, Elsworth D (1997) Failure of volcano slopes. Geotechnique 47:1–31Google Scholar
  137. Voight B, Elsworth D (2000) Stability and collapse of hazardous gas-pressurized lava domes. Geophys Res Lett 48:1–4Google Scholar
  138. Voight B, Glicken H, Janda RJ, Douglass PM (1981) Catastrophic rockslide avalanche of May 18. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:347–377Google Scholar
  139. Voight B, Glicken H, Janda RJ, Douglass PM (1983) Nature and mechanics of the Mount St Helens rockslide-avalanche of 18 May 1980. Geotechnique 33:243–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Voight B, Komorowski J-C, Norton G, Belousov A, Belousova M, Boudon G, Francis P, Franz W, Sparks S, Young S (2002) The 1997 Boxing Day sector collapse and debris avalanche, Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, B.W.I. In: Druitt T, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995–1999. Mem Geol Soc Lond 21:363–407Google Scholar
  141. Wadge G, Isaacs MC (1988) Mapping the volcanic hazards from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies using an image processor. J Geol Soc Lond 145:541–551Google Scholar
  142. Waitt RBJ (1981) Devastating pyroclastic density flow and attendant air fall of May 18—stratigraphy and sedimentology of deposits. In: Lipman, PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:439–458Google Scholar
  143. Waitt RBJ (1984) Comments and reply on “Mount St. Helens 1980 and Mount Pelée 1902—flow or surge?” Geology 12:693Google Scholar
  144. Wallis GB (1969) One-dimensional two-phase flow. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  145. Walker GPL (1983) Ignimbrite types and ignimbrite problems. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 17:65–88Google Scholar
  146. Walker GPL, McBroome LA (1983) Mount St. Helens 1980 and Mount Pelée 1902—flow or surge? Geology 11:571–574Google Scholar
  147. Walker GPL, McBroome LA (1984) Comments and reply on “Mount St. Helens 1980 and Mount Pelée 1902—flow or surge? Geology 12:693–694Google Scholar
  148. Watts R, Sparks RSJ, Herd RA, Young SR (2002) Growth patterns and emplacement of the andesitic lava dome at Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt T, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995–1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:115–152Google Scholar
  149. Wilson L, Heslop SE (1990) Clast sizes in terrestrial and Martian ignimbrite lag deposits. J Geophys Res 95:17309–17314Google Scholar
  150. Wilson L, Sparks RSJ, Walker JPL (1980) Explosive volcanic eruptions, IV. The control of magma properties and conduit geometry on eruption column behavior. Geophys J Royal Astron Soc 63:117–148Google Scholar
  151. Winner WE, Casadevall TJ (1981) Fir leaves as thermometers during the May 18 eruption. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:315–320Google Scholar
  152. Wohletz KH (1998) Pyroclastic surges and compressible two-phase flow. In: Freund A, Rosi M (eds) From magma to tephra. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 247–312Google Scholar
  153. Wohletz KH, Sheridan MF (1979) A model of pyroclastic surge. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 180:177–194Google Scholar
  154. Wohletz KH, Valentine GA (1990) Computer simulations of explosive volcanic eruptions. In: Ryan MP (ed) Magma transport and storage. Wiley, New York, pp 113–135Google Scholar
  155. Wohletz KH, McGetchin TR, Sandford MT, Jones EM (1984) Hydrodynamic aspects of caldera-forming eruptions: numerical models. J Geophys Res 89:8269–8285Google Scholar
  156. Woods A (2000) Dynamics of hazardous volcanic flows. Phil Trans Royal Soc London 358:1705–1724Google Scholar
  157. Woods AW, Sparks RSJ, Batey J, Gladstone C, Ritchie LJ, Bursik M (2002) The generation of vertically stratified pyroclastic density currents by rapid decompression of a pressurised volcanic dome on 26 December (Boxing Day) 1997 at Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt T, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995–1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:457–465Google Scholar
  158. Yamamoto T, Suto S (1996) Eruptive history of Bandai volcano, NE Japan, based on tephrostratigraphy. Bull Geol Surv Japan 47:335–359Google Scholar
  159. Young SR, Voight B, Barclay J, Herd R, Komorowski JC, Miller AD, Sparks RSJ, Stewart RC (2002) Hazards implications of small-scale edifice instability and sector collapse: a case-history from Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt T, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, from 1995–1999. Mem Geol Soc London 21:349–363Google Scholar
  160. Zimanowski B (1998) Phreatomagmatic explosions. In: Freundt A, Rosi M (eds) From magma to tephra. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 25–54Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Belousov
    • 1
    • 2
  • Barry Voight
    • 3
  • Marina Belousova
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Marine Geology and GeochemistryYuzhno-SakhalinskRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Volcanology and SeismologyPetropavlovsk-KamchatskyRussia
  3. 3.Department of Geosciences, Deike BuildingPenn State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations