Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 68, Issue 5, pp 480–490 | Cite as

Source constraints of Tungurahua volcano explosion events

  • Mario C. Ruiz
  • Jonathan M. Lees
  • Jeffrey B. Johnson
Research Article

Abstract

The most recent eruptive cycle of Tungurahua volcano began in May 2004, and reached its highest level of activity in July 2004. This activity cycle is the last one of a series of four cycles that followed the reawakening and major eruption of Tungurahua in 1999. Between June 30 and August 12, 2004, three temporary seismic and infrasonic stations were installed on the flanks of the volcano and recorded over 2,000 degassing events. The events are classified by waveform character and include: explosion events (the vast majority, spanning three orders of pressure amplitudes at 3.5 km from the vent, 0.1–180 Pa), jetting events, and sequences of repetitive infrasonic pulses, called chugging events. Travel-time analysis of seismic first arrivals and infrasonic waves indicates that explosions start with a seismic event at a shallow depth (<200 m), followed ∼1 s later by an out-flux of gas, ash and solid material through the vent. Cluster analysis of infrasonic signals from explosion events was used to isolate four groups of similar waveforms without apparent correlation to event size, location, or time. The clustering is thus associated with source mechanism and probably spatial distribution. Explosion clusters do not exhibit temporal dependence.

Keywords

Volcanic degassing Volcanic explosions Cluster analysis Tungurahua 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Work presented in this paper was supported by NSF Grant EAR 0337462 and grant NSF EAR #0440225. We are thankful for the invaluable support provided by the Director and personnel of Instituto Geofisico, Ecuador and Tungurahua Volcano Observatory. We are also thankful to the field assistance of P. Ramón, D. Andrade, G. Ruiz, D. Barba, and N. Terán. M. Garcés and E. Marchetti along with their comments and suggestions for improving this work. We are grateful for the advice and technical support from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrumentation facility.

References

  1. Alvarado G, Barquero R (1987) Seismic signals of Arenal volcano (Costa Rica) and their relationship with eruptive phases (1968–1986) (in Spanish). Ciencia y Tecnología, San Jose, Costa Rica 11:15–38Google Scholar
  2. Batchelor GK (1967) An introduction to fluid dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–615Google Scholar
  3. Chouet BA, Hamisevicz NT, McGetchin TR (1974) Photoballistics of volcanic jet activity at Stromboli, Italy. J Geohys Res 79:4961–4976Google Scholar
  4. Chouet BA, Saccorotti G, Martini M, Dawson P, De Luca G, Milana G, Scarpa R (1997) Source and path effect in the wavefield of tremor and explosions at Stromboli Volcano, Italy. J Geophys Res 102:15129–15150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chouet BA, Dawson P, Ohminato T, Martini M, Saccorotti G, Giudicepietro F, De Luca G, Milana G, Scarpa R (2003) Source mechanism of explosions at Stromboli determined from Moment Tensor Inversions of very-long-period data. J Geophys Res 108 B1 2019, doi: 10.1029/2002JB001919Google Scholar
  6. Egred J (2004) Eruptive History of Tungurahua volcano (in Spanish). Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Instituto Geofísico, in http://www.igepn.edu.ec/vulcanologia/tungurahua/historia.htm
  7. Ford RD (1970) Introduction to acoustics, Elsevier, New York, pp. 1–149Google Scholar
  8. Formenti Y, Druitt TH, Kelfoun K (2003) Characterization of the 1997 vulcanian explosions of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Monserrate, by video analysis. Bull Volcanol 65:587–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garcés M (2000) Theory of acoustic propagation in a multi-phase stratified liquid flowing within an elastic-walled conduit of varying cross-sectional area. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 101:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garcés MA, Hagerty MT, Schwartz SY (1998) Magma acoustics and time-varying melt properties at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica. Geophys Res Lett 25:2293–2296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garcés M, Iguchi M, Ishihara K, Morrissey M, Sudo Y, Tsutsui T (1999) Infrasound precursors to a Vulcanian eruption at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan. Geophys Res Lett 26:2537–2540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gresta S, Ripepe M, Marchetti E, D'Amico S, Coltelli M, Harris AJL, Privitera E (2004) Seismoacoustic measurements during the July–August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna volcano, Italy. Volcanol Geotherm Res 137:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hagerty M, Schwartz S, Garces M, Protti M (2000) Analysis of seismic and acoustic observations at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, 1995–1997. Volcanol Geotherm Res 101:27–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hall ML, Robin C, Beate B, Mothes P, Monzier M (1999) Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador; structure, eruptive history and hazards. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 101:27–65Google Scholar
  15. Ihaka R, Gentleman R (1996) R: a language for data analysis and graphics. J Comput Graphic Statist 5:299–314Google Scholar
  16. Instituto Geofisico (2001) Annual Report of Tungurahua volcano activity: 2000 (in Spanish). http://www.igepn.edu.ec/vulcanologia/tungurahua/actividad/IAT2000.pdf
  17. Instituto Geofisico-OVT (2004) Monthly summary of Tungurahua volcano activity: July 2004 (in Spanish). Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Departamento de Geofísica. http://www.igepn.edu.ec/vulcanologia/tungurahua/actividad/2004/2004-07.pdf
  18. Johnson J (2003) Generation and propagation of infrasonic airwaves from volcanic explosions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 121:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson JB, Lees JM, Gordeev EI (1998) Degassing explosions at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka. Geophys Res Lett 25:3999–4002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson J, Lees JM (2000) Plugs and chugs: seismic and acoustic observations of degassing explosions at Karymsky, Russia and Sangay, Ecuador. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 101:67–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson J, Aster RC, Ruiz MC, Malone SD, McChesney PJ, Lees JM, Kyle PR (2003) Interpretation and utility of infrasonic records from erupting volcanoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 121:15–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson JB, Aster RC, Kyle RP (2004) Volcanic eruptions observed with infrasound. Geophys Res Lett 31:L14604, doi 10.1029/2004GL020020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaufman L, Rousseeuw PJ (1990) Finding groups in data: an introduction to cluster analysis. Wiley, New York, pp. 1–342Google Scholar
  24. Molina I (2001) Pre-eruptive activity of Tungurahua volcano (in Spanish). Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia, pp 1–201Google Scholar
  25. Nishimura T, Chouet B (2003) A numerical simulation of magma motion, crustal deformation, and seismic radiation associated with volcanic eruptions. Geophys J Int 153:699–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Papale P (1998) Volcanic conduit dynamics in Freundt A., Rosi M., from magma to tephra. Elsevier, pp. 55–89Google Scholar
  27. Pison G, Struyf A, Rousseeuw PJ (1999) Displaying a clustering with CLUSPLOT. ComputStatist Data Anal 30:381–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Power JA, Lahr JC, Page RA, Chouet BA, Stephens CD, Harlow DH, Murray TL, Davies JN (1994) Seismic evolution of the 1989-90 eruption sequence of Redoubt volcano, Alaska. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 62:69–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ripepe M, Ciliberto S, Della Schiava M (2001) Time constraints for modeling source dynamics of volcanic explosions at Stromboli. J Geophys Res 106:8713–8722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ripepe M, Harris A, Carniel R (2002) Thermal, seismic and infrasonic evidences of variable degassing rates at Stromboli volcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 118:285–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ruiz M, Hall M, Samaniego P, Ruiz G, Villagomez D (1999) Seismic activity in Tungurahua volcano: correlation between tremor and precipitation rates. Mem. 4th International Symposium on Andean Geodynamics, October 2005, Gottingen, Germany, pp 636–639Google Scholar
  32. Ruiz M, Barba D, Johnson J, Seidl D (2001) Seismo-acoustic signals from Tungurahua volcano (in Spanish). Mem VI Jornadas Ciencias de la Tierra, EPN, Quito, Ecuador, pp 81–83Google Scholar
  33. Samaniego P, Eissen JP, Le Pennec JL, Hall ML, Monzier M, Mothes P, Ramon P, Robin C, Egred J, Molina I, Yepes H (2003) Volcanic hazards related to Tungurahua (in Spanish), Corporacion Editora Nacional, Quito, Ecuador, pp 1–100Google Scholar
  34. Tobin GA, Whiteford LM (2002) Community resilience and volcano hazard: the eruption of tungurahua and evacuation of the Faldas in Ecuador. Disasters 26:28–48CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Vergniolle S, Caplan-Aubech J (2004) Acoustic measurements of the 1999 basaltic eruption of Shishaldin volcano, Alaska: 2. Precursor to the Sub-plinian phase. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 137:109–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weill A, Brandeis G, Vergniolle S, Baudin F, Bilbille J, Fevre JF, Piron B, Hill X (1992) Acoustic sounder measurements of the vertical velocity of volcanic jets at Stromboli volcano. Geophys Res Lett 19:2357–2360Google Scholar
  37. Woulff G, McGetchin TR (1976) Acoustic noise from volcanoes: theory and experiment. Geophys J R Astr Soc 45:601–616Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mario C. Ruiz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jonathan M. Lees
    • 1
  • Jeffrey B. Johnson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Instituto GeofisicoEscuela Politecnica NacionalQuitoEcuador
  3. 3.Climate Change Research CenterUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations