Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 66, Issue 7, pp 622–641 | Cite as

Procida volcanic history: new insights into the evolution of the Phlegraean Volcanic District (Campania region, Italy)

  • Gianfilippo De AstisEmail author
  • Lucia Pappalardo
  • Monica Piochi
Research Article


New stratigraphic, major- and trace-element, and Sr-, Nd- and Pb- isotopic data on volcanic deposits older than 14 ka from the island of Procida, Italy, are presented and compared with published analyses from the rest of the Phlegraean Volcanic District (PVD). Procida rocks range in composition from basalt to shoshonite and trachyte and show 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios varying within the ranges 0.70523–0.70678, 0.512539–0.512630, 18.99–19.29, 15.67–15.69 and 39.10–39.39, respectively. The presence of a compositional gap in the range SiO2=54–59 wt % is evidence of magma bimodality, and suggests that the feeding magmatic system was formed by at least two different reservoirs located at different depths. Geochemical and isotopic variations with increasing differentiation can be explained by fractional crystallization mechanisms, that in some cases were associated with crustal contamination that occurred in both deeper and shallower reservoirs; the most evolved magmas formed in the shallower one. Mixing/mingling processes also occurred. The variation of isotopic composition through time observed both for Procida and for Campi Flegrei and Ischia rocks is evidence of strong affinity between magmas that erupted on the entire PVD until about 40 ka. This indicates that they share a common origin and a common plumbing system. Most of the PVD eruptive centers active until about 40 ka lie within a NE-SW-oriented volcano-tectonic belt extending from the southeastern part of Ischia, through Procida and Torregaveta volcano to the northeastern sector of the present Campi Flegrei caldera. This not only indicates the existence of a link between regional structures and volcanism in the area, but also suggests that PVD magma genesis and evolution were strongly regulated by extensional tectonics. In the last 40 ka the mafic rocks erupted along this extensional structure – from Torregaveta and the islands of Ischia and Procida – indicate that it still represents an important crustal discontinuity that focuses mantle-derived magmas. Procida trachybasalts are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light and middle rare earth elements (LREE and MREE), and show slight negative anomalies in the high field strength elements (HFSE) relative to average MORB. A slight depletion in HREE is present. Trace element and isotope systematics can be referred to a lithospheric mantle source. The lithospheric mantle source carries intra-plate and slab-derived components, the latter probably inherited from a previous subduction event.


Phlegraean Volcanic District Procida Volcanism Tectonics Magma evolution Magma source 



The CNR Short-Term Mobility program partially funded this research with a grant. The assistance from P. D. Kempton is acknowledged for the Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic analyses. We also thank A. Carandente and P. Belviso for helping with the sample preparation. Prof. G. Orsi and Prof. A. Peccerillo are also acknowledged for their very kind financial support of the analyses. The IPF laboratory of the Osservatorio Vesuviano furnished the PVD map on which Fig. 1 has been drawn. We are grateful to G. Mahood, N. McMillan and an anonymous reviewer for suggestions that considerably improved the manuscript. Finally, we thank J. Donnelly-Nolan for her assistance with the manuscript revision.


  1. Acocella V, Salvini F, Funiciello R, Faccenna C (1999) The role of transfer structures on volcanic activity at Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy). J Volcanol Geoth Res 91:123–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alessio M, Bella F, Improta S, Belluomini G, Cortesi C, Turi B (1971) University of Rome Carbon-14 dates IX. Radiocarbon 13:395–411Google Scholar
  3. Alessio M, Bella F, Improta S, Belluomini G, Calderoni G, Cortesi C, Turi B (1973) University of Rome Carbon-14 dates X. Radiocarbon 15:165–178Google Scholar
  4. Alessio M, Bella F, Improta S, Belluomini G, Calderoni G, Cortesi C, Turi B (1974) University of Rome Carbon-14 dates XII. Radiocarbon 16:358–367Google Scholar
  5. Alessio M, Bella F, Improta S, Belluomini G, Calderoni G, Cortesi C, Turi B (1976) University of Rome Carbon-14 dates XIV. Radiocarbon 18:321–349Google Scholar
  6. Appleton JD (1972) Petrogenesis of potassium-rich lavas from the Roccamonfina Volcano, Roman Region, Italy. J Petrol 13:425–456Google Scholar
  7. Ayuso RA, De Vivo B, Rolandi G, Seal RR, Paone A (1998) Geochemical and isotopic (Nd-Pb-Sr-O) variations bearing on the genesis of volcanic rocks from Vesuvius, Italy. J Volcanol Geoth Res 82:53–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beccaluva L, Di Girolamo P, Serri G (1991) Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Roman volcanic province. Lithos 26:191–221Google Scholar
  9. Beccaluva L, Siena F, Coltorti M, Di Grande A, Lo Giudice A, Macciotta G, Tassinari R, Vaccaro C (1998) Nephelinitic to tholeiitic magma generation from metasomatized lithospheric mantle in a transcurrent tectonic setting: an integrated petrogenetic model for the Iblean volcanism (Sicily). J Petrol 39:1547–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berrino G, Corrado G, Riccardi U (1998) Sea gravity data in the Gulf of Naples: a contribution to delineating the structural pattern of the Vesuvian area. J Volcanol Geoth Res 82:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bianchini G, Clocchiatti R, Coltorti M, Joron JL, Vaccaro C (1998) Petrogenesis of mafic lavas from the northernmost sector of the Iblean district (Sicily). Eur J Mineral 10:301–315Google Scholar
  12. Bianco F, Castellano M, Milano G, Ventura G, Vilardo G (1998) Somma-Vesuvius stress field induced by regional tectonics: evidences from seismological and mesostructural data. J Volcanol Geoth Res 82:199–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brancaccio L, Cinque A, Romano P, Rosskopf C, Russo F, Santangelo N, Santo N (1991) Geomorphology and neotectonic evolution of a sector of the Tyrrhenian flank of the Southern Apennines (Region of Naples, Italy). Z Geomorph NF 82:47–58Google Scholar
  14. Brocchini D, Principe C, Castradori D, Laurenzi MA, Gorla L (2001) Quaternary evolution of the southern sector of the Campanian Plain and early Somma-Vesuvius activity: insights from the Trecase 1 well. Miner Petrol 73:67–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bruno PPG, de Alteriis G, Florio G (2002) The western undersea section of the Ischia volcanic complex (Italy, Tyrrhenian sea) inferred by marine geophysical data. Geophys Res Lett 29(9):10.1029/2001GL013904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bruno PPG, Rapolla A, Di Fiore V (2003) Structural settings of the Bay of Naples (Italy) by seismic reflection data: implications for the Campanian volcanism. Tectonophysics 372:193–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carminati E, Wortel MRJ, Spackman V, Sabadini R (1998) The role of slab detachment processes in the opening of the western-central Mediterranean basins: some geological and geophysical evidence. Earth Planet Sc Lett 160:651–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cassano E (1990) Thyrrhenian and western Mediterranean geomagnetic domains. Terra Nova 2:638–644Google Scholar
  19. Cassignol C, Gillot P (1982) Range and effectiveness of unspiked potassium-argon dating: experimental ground work and application. In: Odin GS (ed) Numerical dating in stratigraphy. Wiley, New York, pp 160–179Google Scholar
  20. Cecchetti A, Fulignati P, Marianelli P, Proto N, Sbrana A (2001) The feeding system of Campi Flegrei. Insights from melt and fluid inclusions on Ignimbrite Campana, Solchiaro and Minopoli eruptions. GNV-INGV Meeting, Rome, Italy, 9–11 October 2001, Abstracts vol:190–191Google Scholar
  21. Cinque A, Patacca E, Scandone P, Tozzi M (1993) Quaternary kinematic evolution of Southern Apennine. Relationship between surface geological features and deep lithospheric structures. Ann Geophys 36:249–260Google Scholar
  22. Civetta L, Gallo G, Orsi G (1991) Sr- and Nd-isotope and trace-element constraints on the chemical evolution of the magmatic system of Ischia (Italy) in the last 55 Ka. J Volcanol Geoth Res 46:213–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Civetta L, Orsi G, Pappalardo L, Fisher RV, Heiken G, Ort M (1997) Geochemical zoning, mingling, eruptive dynamics and depositional processes – The Campanian Ignimbrite, Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy. J Volcanol Geoth Res 75:183–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Conticelli S, Peccerillo A (1992) Petrology and geochemistry of potassic and ultrapotassic volcanism in central Italy: petrogenesis and inferences on the evolution of the mantle source. Lithos 28:221–240Google Scholar
  25. Corsaro RA, Cristofolini R, Patanè L (1996) The 1669 eruption at Mount Etna: chronology, petrology and geochemistry, with inferences on the magma sources and ascent mechanisms. B Volcanol 58:348–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cortini M, Hermes OD (1981) Sr isotopic evidence for a multi source origin of the potassic magmas in the Neapolitan area (South Italy). Contrib Mineral Petr 77:47–55Google Scholar
  27. D’Antonio M, Tilton GR, Civetta L (1996) Petrogenesis of Italian alkaline lavas deduced from Pb-Sr-Nd isotope relationships. In: Basu A, Hart S (eds) Earth processes: reading the isotopic code. AGU (Monograph Series), Washington, DC, 95:253–267Google Scholar
  28. D’Antonio M, Civetta L, Orsi G, Pappalardo L, Piochi M, Carandente A, de Vita S, Di Vito M, Isaia R (1999a) The present state of the magmatic system of the Campi Flegrei caldera based on a reconstruction of its behavior in the past 12 ka. J Volcanol Geoth Res 91:247–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. D’Antonio M, Civetta L, Di Girolamo P (1999b) Mantle source heterogeneity in the Campanian Region (South Italy) as inferred from geochemical and isotopic features of mafic volcanic rocks with shoshonitic affinity. Miner Petrol 67:163–192Google Scholar
  30. Deino A, Curtis G, Rosi M (1992) 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Campanian Ignimbrite, Campanian Region, Italy. IGC, Kyoto, Japan, 24 August–3 September 1992, Abstracts 3:633Google Scholar
  31. Della Vedova B, Mongelli F, Pellis G, Squarci P, Taffi L, Zito G (1991) Heat-flow map of Italy. SELCA, Florence: International Institute of Geothermal Research, CNR, Pisa, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  32. De Jonge MR, Wuortel MJR, Spackman W (1994) Regional scale tectonic evolution and the seismic velocity structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle: The Mediterranean region. J Geophys Res 99:12091–12108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Vivo B, Rolandi G, Gans PB, Calvert A, Bohrson WA, Spera FJ, Belkin HE (2001) New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic plain (Italy). Miner Petrol 73:47–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Di Girolamo P, Stanzione D (1973) Geological and petrological lineaments of Procida Islands (In Italian). Rend Soc It Mineral Petrol 29:81–125Google Scholar
  35. Di Girolamo P, Ghiara MR, Lirer L, Munno R, Rolandi G, Stanzione D (1984) Volcanology and petrology of Campi Flegrei (in Italian). Boll Soc Geol It 103:349–413Google Scholar
  36. Di Vito MA, Isaia R, Orsi G, Southon J, D’Antonio M, de Vita S, Pappalardo L, Piochi M (1999) Volcanic and deformation history of the Campi Flegrei caldera in the past 12 ka. J Volcanol Geoth Res 91:221–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Downes H, Koustoula T, Jones AP, Beard AD, Thirlwall MF, Bodinier JL (2002) Geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of mantle xenoliths from the Monte Vulture carbonatite-melilitite volcano, central southern Italy. Contrib Mineral Petr 144:78–92Google Scholar
  38. Ellam RM, Hawkesworth CJ, Menzies MA, Rogers W (1989) The volcanism of southern Italy: Role of subduction and relationship between potassic and sodic alkaline magmatism. J Geophys Res 94:4589–4601Google Scholar
  39. Esperanca S, Crisci GM (1995) The island of Pantelleria: a case for the development of DMM-HIMU isotopic compositions in a long-lived extensional setting. Earth Planet Sc Lett 136:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Faccenna C, Funiciello R, Bruni A, Mattei M, Sagnotti L (1994) Evolution of a transfer related basin: the Ardea basin (Latium, Central Italy). Basin Res 6:35–46Google Scholar
  41. Fedi M, Rapolla A (1987) The Campanian Volcanic area: analysis of the magnetic and gravimetric anomalies. Boll Soc Geol It 106:793–805Google Scholar
  42. Ferrucci F, Gaudiosi G, Pino NA, Luongo G (1989) Seismic detection of a major Moho upheaval beneath the Campania volcanic area (Naples, Southern Italy). Geophys Res Lett 16:1317–1320Google Scholar
  43. Finetti I, Morelli C (1974) Seismic reflection survey of the Gulf of Napoli and Pozzuoli (In Italian). Boll Geof Teor App 16:175–222Google Scholar
  44. Florio G, Fedi M, Cella F, Rapolla A (1999) The Campanian Plain and the Phlegraean Fields: structural setting from potential field data. J Volcanol Geoth Res 91:361–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gillot PY, Vezzoli L (1986) Geologic map of the island of Ischia. K-Ar Ages. In: Geodynamic Finalized Project (In Italian). CNR, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  46. Gvirtzman Z, Nur A (1999) The formation of Mount Etna as the consequence of slab roll back. Nature 401:782–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hawkesworth CJ, Vollmer R (1979) Crustal contamination versus enriched mantle: 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr evidence from the Italian volcanics. Contrib Mineral Petr 69:151–165Google Scholar
  48. Hippolyte JC, Angelier J, Roure F (1994) A major geodynamic change revealed by Quaternary stress patterns in the Southern Apennines. Tectonophysics 230:199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kitagawa H, Van der Plicht J (1998) Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration to 45,000 yr B.P.: Late glacial fluctuations and cosmogenic isotope production. Science 279:187–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kostoula T, Jones A, Downes H, Beard A (1999) Geochemistry and isotopic composition of mantle xenoliths from Vulture volcano, S. Italy. Ofioliti 24(1a):120Google Scholar
  51. Le Bas, MJ, Le Maitre RW, Streckeisen A, Zanettin B (1986) A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram. J Petrol 27:745–750Google Scholar
  52. Lirer L, Rolandi G, Rubin M (1991) 14C Age of the “Museum Breccia” (Campi Flegrei) and its relevance for the origin of the Campanian Ignimbrite. J Volcanol Geoth Res 48:223–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mariani M, Prato R (1988) Neogenic coast basins of Thyrrenian margin: a seismic-stratigraphic approach (In Italian). Mem Soc Geol It 41:519–531Google Scholar
  54. Melluso L, Morra V, Perrotta A, Scarpati C, Adabbo M (1995) The eruption of The Breccia Museo (Campi Flegrei, Italy): Fractional Crystallization processes in a shallow, zoned magma chamber and implications for the eruptive dynamics. J Volcanol Geoth Res 68:325–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nakamura N (1974) Determination of REE, Ba, Fe, Mg, Na, and K in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 38:757–73Google Scholar
  56. Orsi G, Civetta L, D’Antonio M, Di Girolamo P, Piochi M (1995) Step-filling and development of a three-layer magma chamber: the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff case history. J Volcanol Geoth Res 67:291–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Orsi G, de Vita S, Di Vito M (1996) The restless, resurgent Campi Flegrei nested caldera (Italy): constraints on its evolution and configuration. J Volcanol Geoth Res 74:179–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Orsi G, Patella D, Piochi M, Tramacere A (1999) Magnetic modeling of the Phlegraean Volcanic District with extension to the Ponza archipelago, Italy. J Volcanol Geoth Res 91:415–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pappalardo L, Civetta L, D’Antonio M, Deino AL, Di Vito MA, Orsi G, Carandente A, de Vita S, Isaia R, Piochi M (1999) Chemical and isotopical evolution of the Phlegraean magmatic system before the Campanian Ignimbrite (37 ka) and the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (12 ka) eruptions. J Volcanol Geoth Res 91:141–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pappalardo L, Piochi M, D’Antonio M, Civetta L, Petrini R (2002) Evidence for multi-stage magmatic evolution during the past 60 ka at Campi Flegrei (Italy) deduced from Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data. J Petrol 43:1415–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pearce JA (1983) The role of sub-continental lithosphere in magma genesis at destructive plate margins. In: Hawkesworth CJ, Norry MJ (eds) Continental basalts and mantle xenoliths. Shiva, Nantwich, Cheshire, UK, pp 230–249Google Scholar
  62. Peccerillo A (1999) Multiple mantle metasomatism in central-southern Italy: geochemical effects, timing and geodynamic implications. Geology 27:315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Peccerillo A (2001) Geochemical similarities between the Vesuvius; Phlegraean Fields and Stromboli volcanoes: petrogenetic, geodynamic and volcanological implications. Miner Petrol 73:93–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Perrotta A, Scarpati C (1994) The dynamics of the Breccia Museo Eruption (Campi Flegrei, Italy) and the significance of spatter clasts associated with lithic breccias. J Volcanol Geoth Res 59:335–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pescatore T, Rolandi G (1981) Preliminary observations on stratigraphy of volcanoclastic deposits of the SW sector of Campi Flegrei (In Italian). Boll Soc Geol It 100:233–254Google Scholar
  66. Piochi M, Civetta L, Orsi G (1999) Mingling in the magmatic system of Ischia (Italy) in the past 5 Ka. Miner Petrol 66:227–258Google Scholar
  67. Rogani P (1992) Procida Island: depositional, petrographic and geochemical features of Ischia pyroclastic levels (In Italian). PhD thesis, University of Bologna, Italy, pp 180Google Scholar
  68. Rosi M, Sbrana A (1987) The Phlegraean Fields. Quaderni de “La ricerca Scientifica”, pp 175Google Scholar
  69. Rosi M, Sbrana A Vezzoli L (1988a) Tephrostratigraphy of Ischia, Procida and Campi Flegrei volcanic products (In Italian). Mem Soc Geol It 41:1015–1027Google Scholar
  70. Rosi M, Sbrana A, Vezzoli L (1988b) Stratigraphy of Procida and Vivara islands (In Italian). Boll GNV 4:500–525Google Scholar
  71. Rosi M, Vezzoli L, Aleotti P, De Cebsi M (1996) Interaction between caldera collapse and eruptive dynamics during the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption, Phlegraean Fields, Italy. B Volcanol 57:541–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Scandone R, Bellucci F, Lirer L, Rolandi G (1991) The structure of the Campanian Plain and the activity of the Neapolitan volcanoes (Italy). J Volcanol Geoth Res 48:1–31Google Scholar
  73. Spadini G, Wezel FC (1995) Structural evolution of the “41st parallel zone”: Tyrrhenian Sea. Terra Nova 6:552–562Google Scholar
  74. Spera FJ, Bohrson WA (2001) Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes I: general model and energy-constrained assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) formulation. J Petrol 42(5):999–1018Google Scholar
  75. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ, Bard E, Beck JW, Burr GS, Hughen KA, Kromer B, McCormac FG, van der Plicht J, Spurk M (1998) INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000–0 cal BP. Radiocarbon 40:1041–1083Google Scholar
  76. Tanguy JC, Condomines F, Kieffer G (1997) Evolution of the Mount Etna magma: Constraints on the present feeding system and eruptive mechanism. J Volcanol Geoth Res 75(3–4):221–250Google Scholar
  77. Thorpe RS, Francis PW, O’Callanghan L (1984) Relative role of source composition, fractional crystallisation and crustal contamination in the petrogenesis of Andean volcanic rocks. Philos T Roy Soc A 310:675–692Google Scholar
  78. Todt RA, Cliff A, Hanser AW, Hofmann W (1996) Evaluation of a 202Pb-205Pb double spike for high-precision lead isotope analysis. In: Hart SR, Basu A (eds) Earth processes: reading the isotope code. Am Geophys Un, Washington, DC, 95:429–437Google Scholar
  79. Turi B, Taylor HP (1976) Oxygen isotope studies of potassic volcanic rocks of the Roman Province, Central Italy. Contrib Mineral Petr 55:1–31Google Scholar
  80. Vezzoli L (1988) Island of Ischia. Quaderni de “La Ricerca Scientifica” (Progetto finalizzato “Geodinamica”, Monografie finali) 10:134Google Scholar
  81. Vollmer R (1976) Rb-Sr and U-Th-Pb systematics of the alkaline rocks from Italy. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 40:283–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vollmer R, Johnston K, Ghiara MR, Lirer L, Munno R (1981) Sr isotope geochemistry of megacrysts from continental rift and converging plate margin alkaline volcanism in south Italy. J Volcanol Geoth Res 11:317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianfilippo De Astis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lucia Pappalardo
    • 1
  • Monica Piochi
    • 1
  1. 1.Osservatorio VesuvianoIstituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaNapoliItaly

Personalised recommendations