Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 66, Issue 1, pp 29–45 | Cite as

Morphology and emplacement of flows from the Deccan Volcanic Province, India

  • Ninad R. Bondre
  • Raymond A. Duraiswami
  • Gauri Dole
Research Article

Abstract

The present study is probably the first of its kind in the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) that deals in detail with the morphology and emplacement of the Deccan Trap flows, and employs modern terminology and concepts of flow emplacement. We describe in detail the two major types of flows that occur in this province. Compound pahoehoe flows, similar to those in Hawaii and the Columbia River Basalts (CRB) constitute the older stratigraphic Formations. These are thick flows, displaying the entire range of pahoehoe morphology including inflated sheets, hummocky flows, and tumuli. In general, they show the same three-part structure associated with pahoehoe flows from other provinces. However, in contrast to the CRB, pahoehoe lobes in the DVP are smaller, and hummocky flows are quite common. 'Simple' flows occur in the younger Formations and form extensive sheets capped by highly vesicular, weathered crusts, or flow-top breccias. These flows have few analogues in other provinces. Although considered to be a'a flows by previous workers, the present study clearly reveals that the simple flows differ considerably from typical a'a flows, especially those of the proximal variety. This is very significant in the context of models of flood basalt emplacement. At the same time, they do not display direct evidence of endogenous growth. Understanding the emplacement of these flows will go a long way in determining whether all extensive flows are indeed inflated flows, as has recently been postulated.

Most of the studies relating to the emplacement of Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) lavas have relied on observations of flows from the CRB. Much of the current controversy surrounding the emplacement of CFB flows centers around the comparison of Hawaiian lava flows to those from the CRB. We demonstrate that the DVP displays a variety of lava features that are similar to those from the CRB as well as those from Hawaii. This suggests that there may have been more than one mechanism or style for the emplacement of CFB flows. These need to be taken into account before arriving at any general model for flood basalt emplacement.

Keywords

DVP Flows Pahoehoe Compound Simple Inflation Emplacement 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We have benefited greatly from our correspondence with Profs. G.P.L. Walker, Stephen Self, Laszlo Keszthelyi and Jon Stephenson. We thank Dr. J. Kauhikaua for his encouraging comments, and Dr. R.A.F Cas and Dr. Tim Druitt for their critical and careful reviews. Discussions with Dr. Vivek Kale and Shreyas Mangave were highly illuminating. Ninad Bondre and Gauri Dole are grateful to Prof. K.V. Subbarao for giving them an opportunity to participate in the 'Penrose Deccan 2000' field conference. Ninad Bondre would also like to thank his parents and Zu Watanabe for their encouragement.

References

  1. Anderson SW, Stofan ER, Smrekar SE, Guest JE, Wood B (1999) Pulsed inflation of pahoehoe lava flows: implications for flood basalt emplacement. Earth Planet Sci Lett 168:7–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson SW, Stofan ER, Smrekar SE, Guest JE, Wood B (2000) Reply to: Self et al. discussion of 'Pulsed inflation of pahoehoe lava flows: implications for flood basalt emplacement.' Earth Planet Sci Lett 179:425–428Google Scholar
  3. Aubele JC, Crumpler LS, Elston WE (1988) Vesicle zonation and vertical structure of basalt flows. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 35:349–374Google Scholar
  4. Auden J B (1949) Dykes in western India. Trans Natl Inst Sci, India 3:123–157Google Scholar
  5. Beane JE, Turner CA, Hooper PR, Subbarao KV, Walsh JN (1986) Stratigraphy, composition and form of the Deccan basalts, Western Ghats, India. Bull Volcanol 48:61–83Google Scholar
  6. Bhattacharjee S, Chatterjee N, Wampler JM (1996) Timing of the Narmada–Tapti rift reactivation and Deccan volcanism: geochronological and geochemical evidence. Gondwana Geol Mag Spl 2:329–340Google Scholar
  7. Bondre NR, Dole G, Phadnis VM, Duraiswami RA, Kale VS (2000) Inflated pahoehoe lavas from the Sangamner area of the western Deccan Volcanic Province. Curr Sci 78:1004–1007Google Scholar
  8. Cashman KV, Kauahikaua JP (1997) Re-evaluation of vesicle distributions in basaltic lava flows. Geology 25:419–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Courtillot VE, Bease J, Vandamme D, Montigny R, Jaeger JJ, Cappetta H (1986). The Deccan flood basalts at the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary? Earth Planet Sci Lett 80:361–374Google Scholar
  10. Cox KG and Hawkeshworth C J (1985) Geochemical stratigraphy of the Deccan Traps at Mahabaleshwar, Western Ghats, India, with implications for open system magmatic processes. J Petrol 26:355–377Google Scholar
  11. De A (1996) Entablature structure in the Deccan Trap flows: its nature and probable mode of origin: Gondwana Geol Mag Spl 2:439–447Google Scholar
  12. Deshmukh SS (1988) Petrographic variations in compound flows of Deccan Traps and their significance. In: Subbarao, KV (ed) Deccan flood basalts. Mem Geol Soc India 10:305–319Google Scholar
  13. Devey CW, Lightfoot PC (1986) Volcanological and tectonic control of stratigraphy and structure in the western Deccan traps. Bull Volcanol 48:195–207Google Scholar
  14. Dole G, Bondre, N, Duraiswami R A, Kale V S (2002) Discussion on "Arterial system of lava tubes and channels within Deccan volcanics of western India" by K S Misra. J Geol Soc India 60:597–599Google Scholar
  15. Duraiswami RA, Bondre NR, Dole G, Phadnis VM, Kale VS (2001) Tumuli and associated features from the western Deccan volcanic province, India. Bull Volcanol 63:435–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duraiswami RA, Bondre N, Dole G (2002) Morphology and structure of flow-lobe tumuli from Pune and Dhule areas, western Deccan Volcanic Province. J Geol Soc India 60:57–65Google Scholar
  17. Duraiswami RA, Dole G, Bondre N (2003) Slabby pahoehoe from the western Deccan Volcanic Province: evidence for incipient pahoehoe-a'a transitions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 121:195–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Godbole SM, Rana RS, Natu SR (1996) Lava stratigraphy of Deccan basalts of western Maharashtra. Gondwana Geol Mag Spl 2:125–134Google Scholar
  19. Goff F (1996) Vesicle cylinders in vapour differentiated basalt flows. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 71:167–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hon K, Kauahikaua J, Denlinger R, Mackay K (1994) Emplacement and inflation of pahoehoe sheet flows: observations and measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geol Soc Am Bull 106:351–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaila KL (1988) Mapping the thickness of Deccan Trap flows in India from DSS studies and inferences about a hidden Mesozoic basin in the Narmada-Tapti region. In: Subbarao KV (ed) Deccan flood basalts. Mem Geol Soc India 10:91–116Google Scholar
  22. Kale VS, Kulkarni HC, Peshwa VV (1992) Discussion on a geological map of the southern Deccan Traps, India and its structural implications. J Geol Soc Lond 149:473–478Google Scholar
  23. Karmarkar BM (1978) The Deccan Trap basalt flows of the Bor Ghat section of Central Railway. J Geol Soc India 19:106–114Google Scholar
  24. Kauahikaua J, Cashman, KV, Heliker C, Hon KA, Mangan MT, Mattox TN, Thornber CR (1998) Observations on basaltic lava streams in tubes from Kilauea Volcanic, Island of Hawaii. J Geophys Res 103:27303–27323Google Scholar
  25. Keszthelyi L (1995) A preliminary thermal budget for lava tubes on the earth and planets. J Geophys Res 100:20411–20420Google Scholar
  26. Keszthelyi L, Self S (1998) Some physical requirements for the emplacement of long basaltic lava flows. J Geophys Res 103:27447–27464Google Scholar
  27. Keszthelyi L, Self S, Thordarson T (1999) Application of recent studies on the emplacement of basaltic lava flows to the Deccan Traps. In: Subbarao, KV (ed) Deccan flood basalts. Mem Geol Soc India 10:485–520Google Scholar
  28. Long PE, Wood BJ (1986) Structures, textures and cooling histories of Columbia River basalt flows: Geol Soc Am Bull 97:1144–1155Google Scholar
  29. Macdonald GA (1972) Volcanoes. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, p 90Google Scholar
  30. Mahoney JJ, Sheth HC, Chandrasekharam D, Peng ZX (2000) Geochemistry of flood basalts of the Toranmal section, northern Deccan Traps, India: implications for regional Deccan stratigraphy. J Petrol 41:1099–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marathe SS, Kulkarni SR, Karmarkar BM, Gupte RB (1981) Variation in the Deccan Trap volcanicity of western Maharashtra in time and space. Mem Geol Soc India 3:143–152Google Scholar
  32. Misra KS (2002) Arterial system of lava tubes and channels within Deccan volcanics of western India. J Geol Soc India 59:115–124Google Scholar
  33. Mitchell C, Widdowson M (1991) A geological map of the southern Deccan Traps, India and its structural implications. J Geol Soc Lond 148:495–505Google Scholar
  34. Morgan JW (1972) Plate motions and deep mantle convection. Geol Soc Am Bull 132:7–22Google Scholar
  35. Nichols RL (1936) Flow-units in basalt. J Geol 44:617–630Google Scholar
  36. Peterson DW, Tilling, RI (1980) Transition of basaltic lava from pahoehoe to a'a, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii: field observations and key factors. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 7:271–293Google Scholar
  37. Powar KB (1987) Evolution of the Deccan Volcanic Province. In: Presidential Address, 74th Indian Science Congress, Bangalore, 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Rajarao CS, Sahasrabuddhe YS, Deshmukh SS, Raman R (1978) Distribution, structure and petrography of the Deccan Traps, India. Excerpts recently published in: Subbarao KV (ed) Deccan Volcanic Province. Mem Geol Soc India 43 1:401–414Google Scholar
  39. Rowland SK, Walker GPL (1987) Toothpaste lava: characteristics and origin of a lava structural type transtional between pahoehoe and aa. Bull Vocanol 49:631–641Google Scholar
  40. Self S, Keszthelyi L, Thordarson T (2000) Discussion of: 'Pulsed inflation of pahoehoe lava flows: implications for flood basalt emplacement,' by Anderson et al. Earth Planet Sci Lett 179:421–423Google Scholar
  41. Shaw HR, Swanson DA (1970) Eruption and flow rates of flood basalts. Proceedings of the 2nd Columbia River Basalt Symposium, East Washington State College Press, Cheney, pp 271–299Google Scholar
  42. Solanki JN, Bhattacharya DD, Jain AK, Mukherhee A (1996) Stratigraphy and tectonics of the Deccan Traps of Mandla. Gondwana Geol Mag Spl 2:101–114Google Scholar
  43. Sparks RSJ, Pinkerton H (1978) Effect of degassing on rheology of basaltic lava. Nature 276:358–386Google Scholar
  44. Subbarao KV (ed) (1988) Deccan flood basalts. Bangalore, India. Mem Geol Soc India 10:393 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Subbarao KV (ed) (1999) Deccan Volcanic Province. Bangalore, India. Mem Geol Soc India 43:547 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Subbarao KV, Hooper PR (1988) Reconnaissance map of the Deccan Basalt Group in the Western Ghats. India. In: Subbarao KV (ed) Deccan flood basalts. Mem Geol Soc India 10: (enclosure)Google Scholar
  47. Subbarao KV, Bodas MS, Hooper PR, Walsh, JN (1988) Petrogenesis of Jawhar and Igatpuri Formations of western Deccan Trap Province. In: Subbarao KV (ed) Deccan flood basalts. Mem Geol Soc India 10:253–280Google Scholar
  48. Thorat PK (1996) Occurrence of lava channels and tubes in the western part of Deccan Volcanic Province. Gondwana Geol Mag Spl 2:449–456Google Scholar
  49. Thordarson T, Self S (1998) The Roza Member, Columbia River Basalt Group: a gigantic pahoehoe lava flow field formed by endogenous processes? J Geophys Res 103:27,411–27,445Google Scholar
  50. Tomkieff SI (1940) The basalt lavas of the Giant's Causeway District of Northern Ireland. Bull Volcanol 6:89–143Google Scholar
  51. Walker GPL (1969) Some observations and interpretations on the Deccan Traps. Recently published in: Subbarao KV (Ed) Deccan Volcanic Province: Mem Geol Soc India 43 1:367–395Google Scholar
  52. Walker GPL (1971) Compound and simple lava flows and flood basalts. Bull Volcanol 35:579–590Google Scholar
  53. Walker GPL (1987) Pipe vesicles in Hawaiian basalt lavas: their origin and potential as paleoslope indicators. Geology 15:84–87Google Scholar
  54. Walker GPL (1993) Basaltic-volcano systems. In : Pritchard, HM, Alabaster, T, Harris, NBW, Neary, CR (eds) Magmatic processes and plate tectonics. Geol Soc Spec Publ 76:3–38Google Scholar
  55. Watts AB, Cox KG (1989) The Deccan Traps: an interpretation in terms of progressive lithospheric flexure in response to a migrating load. Earth Planet Sci Lett 93:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. West WD (1959) The source of Deccan Trap flows. J Geol Soc India 1:44–52Google Scholar
  57. Whitehead PW, Stephenson PJ (1998) Lava rise ridges of the Toomba basalt flow, north Queensland, Australia. J Geophy Res 103:27,371–27,382Google Scholar
  58. Wilmoth RA, Walker GPL (1993) P-type and S-type pahoehoe: a study of vesicle distribution patterns in Hawaiian lava flows. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 55:129–142Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ninad R. Bondre
    • 1
  • Raymond A. Duraiswami
    • 2
  • Gauri Dole
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeologyMiami UniversityOxfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeologyUniversity of PunePuneIndia

Personalised recommendations