Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 65, Issue 5, pp 363–381 | Cite as

A model for the origin of large silicic magma chambers: precursors of caldera-forming eruptions

  • A. Mark JellinekEmail author
  • Donald J. DePaolo
Research Article


The relatively low rates of magma production in island arcs and continental extensional settings require that the volume of silicic magma involved in large catastrophic caldera-forming (CCF) eruptions must accumulate over periods of 105 to 106 years. We address the question of why buoyant and otherwise eruptible high-silica magma should accumulate for long times in shallow chambers rather than erupt more continuously as magma is supplied from greater depths. Our hypothesis is that the viscoelastic behavior of magma chamber wall rocks may prevent an accumulation of overpressure sufficient to generate rhyolite dikes that can propagate to the surface and cause an eruption. The critical overpressure required for eruption is based on the model of Rubin (1995a). An approximate analytical model is used to evaluate the controls on magma overpressure for a continuously or episodically replenished spherical magma chamber contained in wall rocks with a Maxwell viscoelastic rheology. The governing parameters are the long-term magma supply, the magma chamber volume, and the effective viscosity of the wall rocks. The long-term magma supply, a parameter that is not typically incorporated into dike formation models, can be constrained from observations and melt generation models. For effective wall-rock viscosities in the range 1018 to 1020 Pa s–1, dynamical regimes are identified that lead to the suppression of dikes capable of propagating to the surface. Frequent small eruptions that relieve magma chamber overpressure are favored when the chamber volume is small relative to the magma supply and when the wall rocks are cool. Magma storage, leading to conditions suitable for a CCF eruption, is favored for larger magma chambers (>102 km3) with warm wall rocks that have a low effective viscosity. Magma storage is further enhanced by regional tectonic extension, high magma crystal contents, and if the effective wall-rock viscosity is lowered by microfracturing, fluid infiltration, or metamorphic reactions. The long-term magma supply rate and chamber volume are important controls on eruption frequency for all magma chamber sizes. The model can explain certain aspects of the frequency, volume, and spatial distribution of small-volume silicic eruptions in caldera systems, and helps account for the large size of granitic plutons, their association with extensional settings and high thermal gradients, and the fact that they usually post-date associated volcanic deposits.


Dike Formation Viscoelastic Rocks Rhyolitic Volcanism Granitic Plutons Silicic Magma Chumber Evolution 



This manuscript has benefited from a careful review by Steve Sparks and comments by Ross Kerr, Michael Manga, Francis Nimmo, and Tim Druitt. A.M.J. was supported in part by the Miller Institute for Basic Research, University of California, Berkeley, during the completion of this work. The work was also partially supported by NSF-EAR990959 and by a John Simon Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship to D.J.D.


  1. Agnon A, Lyakhovsky V (1995) Damage distribution and localization during dyke intrusion. In: Baer, Heimann (eds) Physics and chemistry of dykes. pp 65–78Google Scholar
  2. Anderson AT, Newman S, Williams SN, Druitt TH, Kirius CS, Stolper E (1989) H2O, CO2, Cl, and gas in plinian and ash-flow Bishop rhyolite. Geology 17:221–225Google Scholar
  3. Anderson TL (1995) Fracture mechanics: fundamentals and applications. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. Atherton MP (1990) The coastal batholith of Peru: the product of rapid recycling of "new crust" formed within a rifted continental margin. Geol J 25:337–349Google Scholar
  5. Bachmann O, Dungan M, Lipman P (2003) The Fish Canyon magma body, Colorado: rejuvenation and eruption of an upper crustal near-solidus batholithic magma chamber upon voluminous mafic underplating. J Petrol (in press)Google Scholar
  6. Bacon CR, Newman S, Stolper E (1992) Water, CO2, Cl, F in melt inclusions in phenocrysts from 3 Holocene explosive eruptions, Crater Lake, Oregon. Am Mineral 77:1021–1030Google Scholar
  7. Bailey RA (1965) Field and petrographic notes on the Matahina ignimbrite. In: Ewart A (ed) New Zealand volcanology: central volcanic region. NZ Dept Sci Indust Res 80:125–128Google Scholar
  8. Bailey RA, Carr RG (1994) Physical geology and eruptive history of the Matahina ignimbrite, Taupo volcanic zone, North Island, New Zealand. NZ J Geol Geophys 37:319–344Google Scholar
  9. Bailey RA, Dalrymple GB, Lanphere MA (1976) Volcanism, structure, and geochronology of Long Valley caldera, Mono County, California. J Geophys Res 81:725–744Google Scholar
  10. Battaglia M, Roberts C, Segall P (1999) Magma intrusion beneath Long Valley Caldera confirmed by temporal changes in gravity. Science 285:2119–2122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bibby HM, Caldwell TG, Davey FJ, Webb TH (1995) Geophysical evidence on the structure of the Taupo volcanic zone and its hydrothermal circulation. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 68:29–58Google Scholar
  12. Bienawski ZT (1984) Rock mechanics design in mining and tunneling. Balkema, BostonGoogle Scholar
  13. Bills BG, Currey DR, Marshall GA (1994) Viscosity estimates for the crust and upper mantle from patterns of lacustrine shoreline deformation in the Eastern Great Basin. J Geophys Res 99:22059–22086Google Scholar
  14. Blake S (1984) Volatile oversaturation during the evolution of silicic magma chambers as an eruption trigger. J Geophys Res 89:8237–8244Google Scholar
  15. Bonafede M, Dragoni M, Quareni F (1986) Displacement and stress fields produced by a center of dilation and by a pressure source in a viscoelastic half-space: application to the study of ground deformation and seismicity at Campi Flegeri, Italy. Geophys J R Astron Soc 87:455–485Google Scholar
  16. Bonin B (1986) Ring complex granites and anorogenic magmatism. North Oxford Academic, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Bottinga Y, Weill D (1972) The viscosity of magmatic silicate liquids: a model for calculation. Am J Sci 272:438–475Google Scholar
  18. Bower SM, Woods AW (1997) Control of magma volatile content and chamber depth on the mass erupted during explosive volcanic eruptions. J Geophys Res 102:10273–10290Google Scholar
  19. Brace WF, Kohlstedt DL (1980) Limits on lithospheric stress imposed by laboratory experiments. J Geophys Res 85:6248–6252Google Scholar
  20. Bratseva OA, Melekstsev IV, Ponomareva VU, Kirianov VY (1996) The caldera-forming eruption of Ksudach volcano about ca. a.d. 240; The greatest explosive event of our era in Kamchatka, Russia. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 70:49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown GC, Mussett AE (1981) The inaccessible Earth. Allen and Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Bruce PM, Huppert HE (1990) Solidification and melting along dykes by the laminar flow of basaltic magma. In: Ryan MP (ed) Magma transport and storage. Wiley, Chichester, pp 87–101Google Scholar
  23. Cambray FW, Vogel TA, Mills JG Jr (1995) Origin of compositional heterogeneities in tuffs of the Timber Mountain group: the relationship between magma batches and magma transfer and emplacement in an extensional environment. J Geophys Res 100:15793–15805Google Scholar
  24. Carter NL, Tsenn MC (1987) Flow properties of continental lithosphere. Tectonophysics 136:27–63Google Scholar
  25. Cayol V, Dietrich JH, Okamura AT, Miklius A (2000) High magma storage rates before the 1983 eruption of Kilauea, Hawaii. Science 288:2343–2346 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Christensen JN, DePaolo DJ (1993) Time scales of large volume silicic magma systems: Sr isotopic systematics of phenocrysts and glass from the Bishop Tuff, Long Valley California. Contrib Mineral Petrol 113:100–114Google Scholar
  27. Christiansen RL (1984) Yellowstone magmatic evolution: Its bearing on understanding large-volume explosive volcanism. In: Explosive volcanism: inception, evolution, and hazards. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 84–95Google Scholar
  28. Cohen AS, O'Nions RK (1993) Melting rates beneath Hawaii; evidence from uranium series isotopes in Recent lavas. Earth Planet Sci Lett 120:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Criss RE, Taylor HP Jr (1983) An 18O/16O and D/H study of Tertiary hydrothermal systems in the southern half of the Idaho batholith. Geol Soc Am Bull 94:640–663Google Scholar
  30. Criss RE, Ekren EB, Hardyman RF (1984) Casto Ring Zone: a 4,500 km2 fossil hydrothermal system in the Challis Volcanic Field, central Idaho. Geology 12:331–334Google Scholar
  31. Crowe BM (1986) Volcanic hazard assessment for disposal of high-level radioactive waste, ch 16. In: Active tectonics: impact on society. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 247–260Google Scholar
  32. Davidson J, DeSilva S (2000) Composite volcanoes. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, London, pp 663–682Google Scholar
  33. Davies GR, Halliday AN (1998) Development of the Long Valley rhyolitic magma system: strontium and neodymium isotope evidence from glasses and individual phenocrysts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62:3561–3574Google Scholar
  34. Davies GR, Halliday AN, Mahood GA, Hall CM (1994) Isotopic constraints on the production rates, crystallization histories and residence times of pre-caldera silicic magmas, Long Valley, California. Earth Planet Sci Lett 125:17–37Google Scholar
  35. Davies JH, Bickle MJ (1991) A physical model for the volume and composition of melt produced by hydrous fluxing above subduction zones. Phil Trans R Soc Lond A 335:355–364Google Scholar
  36. Davis WJ (1985) Geochemistry and petrology of the Rotoiti and Earthquake Flat pyroclastic deposits. MSc Thesis, Auckland UniversityGoogle Scholar
  37. DePaolo DJ, Perry FV, Baldridge WS (1992) Crustal versus mantle sources of granitic magmas: a two-parameter model based on Nd isotopic studies. Earth Sci Trans R Soc Edinb 83:439–446Google Scholar
  38. Denlinger RP, Hoblitt RP (1999) Cyclic eruptive behavior of silicic volcanoes. Geology 27:459–462Google Scholar
  39. Dragoni M, Magnanensi C (1989) Displacement and stress produced by a pressurized, spherical magma chamber, surrounded by a viscoelastic shell. Phys Earth Planet Int 56:316–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dvorak JJ, Dzurisin D (1997) Volcano geodesy: the search for magma reservoirs and the formation of eruptive vents. Rev Geophys 35:343–384Google Scholar
  41. Farmer GL, Broxton DE, Warren RG, Pickthorn W (1991) Nd, Sr, and O isotopic variations in metaluminous ash-flow tuffs and related volcanic rocks at the Timber Mountain/Oasis Valley Caldera Complex, SW Nevada: implications for the origin and evolution of large-volume silicic magma bodies. Contrib Mineral Petrol 109:53–68Google Scholar
  42. Fialko Y, Simons M, Khazan Y (2001) Finite source modeling of magmatic unrest in Socorro, New Mexico, and Long Valley, California. Geophys J Int 146:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fournier RO, Pitt AM (1985) The Yellowstone magmatic-hydrothermal system. In: Stone C (ed) Geothermal Resource Council 1985, Symposium on geothermal energy transactions. Geothermal Resource Council, pp 319–327Google Scholar
  44. Green DH (1973) Contrasted melting relations in a pyrolite upper mantle under mid-ocean ridge, stable crust and island arc environments. Tectonophysics 17:285–297Google Scholar
  45. Griffith AA (1920) The phenomena of rupture and flow in solids. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 221:163–197Google Scholar
  46. Hansen FD, Carter NL (1983) Semibrittle creep of dry and wet Westerly granite at 1,000 MPa. 24th US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Texas A&M, pp 429–447Google Scholar
  47. Hemond C, Hofmann AW, Heusser G, Condomines M, Raczek I, Rhodes JM (1994) U–Th–Ra systematics in Kilauea and Mauna Loa basalts, Hawaii. Chem Geol 116:163–180Google Scholar
  48. Hervig RL, Dunbar N, Westrich HR, Kyle PR (1989) Pre-eruptive water content of rhyolitic magmas as determined by ion microprobe analyses of melt inclusions in phenocrysts. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 36:299–302Google Scholar
  49. Hess KU, Dingwell DB )1996) Viscosities of hydrous leucogranitic melts—a non-Arrhenian model. Am Mineral 81:1297–1300Google Scholar
  50. Hildreth W (1979) The Bishop Tuff: evidence for the origin of compositional zonation in magma chambers. Geol Soc Am Spec Paper 180:43–75Google Scholar
  51. Hildreth W (1981) Gradients in silicic magma chambers: implications for lithospheric magmatism. J Geophys Res 86:10153–10192Google Scholar
  52. Hildreth W, Christiansen RL, O'Neill JR (1984) Catastrophic isotopic modification of rhyolitic magma at times of caldera subsidence, Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. J Geophys Res 89:8339–8369Google Scholar
  53. Hill DP, Bailey RA, Ryall AS (1985) Active tectonic and magmatic processes beneath Long Valley Caldera, eastern California: an overview. J Geophys Res 90:11111–11120Google Scholar
  54. Huppert HE, Sparks RSJ (1988) The generation of granitic magmas by intrusion of basalt into continental crust. J Petrol 29:599–624Google Scholar
  55. Hutton DHW, Reavy RJ (1992) Strike-slip tectonics and granite petrogenesis. Tectonics 11:960–967Google Scholar
  56. Jellinek AM, Kerr RC (1999) Mixing and compositional stratification produced by natural convection. Part 2. Applications to the differentiation of basaltic and silicic magma chambers, and komatiite lava flows. J Geophys Res 104:7203–7219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Johnson CM (1991) Large scale crust formation and lithosphere modification beneath Middle to Late Cenozoic calderas and volcanic fields, western North America. J Geophys Res 96:13485–13507Google Scholar
  58. Jurado-Chichay Z, Walker GPL (2001a) The intensity and magnitude of the Mangaone Subgroup plinian eruptions from Okataina volcanic center, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 111:219–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jurado-Chichay Z, Walker GPL (2001b) The variability of Plinian fall deposits; examples from Okataina volcanic center, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 111:239–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kane MF, Mabey DR, Brace RL A (1976) gravity and magnetic investigation of the Long Valley Caldera, Mono county, CA. J Geophys Res 81:754–768Google Scholar
  61. Kerr RC (1994) Melting driven by vigorous compositional convection. J Fluid Mech 280:255–285Google Scholar
  62. Kirby SH (1980) Tectonic stress in the lithosphere: constraints provided by the experimental deformation of rocks. J Geophys Res 85:6353–6363Google Scholar
  63. Kirby SH (1983) Rheology of the lithosphere. Rev Geophys Space Phys 21:1458–1487Google Scholar
  64. Kirby SH (1985) Rock mechanics observations pertinent to the rheology of the continental lithosphere and the localization of strain along shear zones. Tectonophysics 119:1–27Google Scholar
  65. Langbein J, Wilkinson S, Johnston M, Feinberg J, Bilham R (1998) The 1997–98 inflation episode of Long Valley caldera and comparison with the 1989–95 episode. Trans Am Geophys Union (EOS) 79:F963Google Scholar
  66. Lipman PW (1984) The roots of ash flow calderas in western North America: windows into the tops of granitic batholiths. J Geophys Res 89:8801–8841Google Scholar
  67. Lipman PW (1988) Evolution of silicic magma in the upper crust: the mid-Tertiary Latir volcanic field and its cogenetic granite batholith, northern New Mexico, USA. Trans R Soc Edinb Earth Sci 79:265–288Google Scholar
  68. Lipman PW (1995) Declining growth of Mauna Loa during the last 100,000 years: rates of lava accumulation versus gravitational subsidence. In: Rhodes JM, Lockwood JP (eds) Mauna Loa revealed: structure, composition, history, and hazards. Am Geophys Union Geophys Monogr 92:45–80Google Scholar
  69. Lipman PW (2000) Calderas, In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, London, pp 643–662Google Scholar
  70. Lipman PW, Dungan MA, Bachmann O (1997) Eruption of granophyric granite from a large ash-flow magma chamber: implications for emplacement of the Fish Canyon Tuff and collapse of La Garita caldera, San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Geology 25:915–918Google Scholar
  71. Lister JR, Kerr RC (1991) Fluid–mechanical models of crack propagation and their application to magma transport in dikes. J Geophys Res 96:10049–10077Google Scholar
  72. Lyakhovsky V, Podladchikov Y, Poliakov A (1993) Rheological model of a fractured solid. Tectonophysics 226:187–198Google Scholar
  73. Lyakhovsky V, Reches Z, Weinberger R, Scott TE (1997) Nonlinear elastic behavior of damaged rocks. Geophys J Int 130:157–166Google Scholar
  74. Lyakhovsky V, Ben-Zion Y, Agnon A (1998) Distributed damage, faulting and friction. J Geophys Res 102:27635–27649Google Scholar
  75. Marsh BD (1988) On the crystallinity, probability of occurrence, and rheology of lava and magma. Contrib Mineral Petrol 78:85–98Google Scholar
  76. Marsh BD, Carmichael ISE (1974) Benioff zone magmatism. J Geophys Res 79:1196–1206Google Scholar
  77. McLeod P, Tait S (1999) The growth of dykes from magma chambers. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 92:231–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McNutt S (2000) Seismic monitoring. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, London, pp 1095–1121Google Scholar
  79. Meriaux C, Jaupart C (1995) Simple fluid dynamical models of volcanic rift zones. Earth Planet Sci Lett 136:223–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Meriaux C, Jaupart C (1998) Dike propagation through an elastic plate. J Geophys Res 103:18295–18314Google Scholar
  81. Meriaux C, Lister JR, Lyakhovsky V, Agnon A (1999) Dyke propagation with distributed damage of the host rock. Earth Planet Sci Lett 165:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Metz JM, Mahood GA (1985) Precursors to the Bishop Tuff eruption: Glass Mountain, Long Valley, California. J Geophys Res 90:11121–11126Google Scholar
  83. Metz JM, Mahood GA (1991) Development of the Long Valley, California, magma chamber recorded in precaldera rhyolite lavas of Glass Mountain. Contrib Mineral Petrol 106:379–397Google Scholar
  84. Michael PJ (1991) Intrusion of basaltic magma into a crystallizing granitic magma chamber: the Cordillera Del Paine Pluton, southern Chile. Contrib Mineral Petrol 108:396–418Google Scholar
  85. Nairn IA (1981) Some studies of the geology, volcanic history and geothermal resources of the Okataina Volcanic Centre, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. PhD Thesis, Victoria University, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  86. Newhall C, Fink J, Decker B, de la Cruz S, Wagner J-J (1994) Research at Decade volcanoes aimed at disaster prevention. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 75:340Google Scholar
  87. Newman AV, Dixon TH, Ofoegbu G, Dixon JE (2001) Geodetic and seismic constraints on recent activity at Long Valley Caldera, California: evidence for viscoelastic rheology. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 105:183–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Norton D, Knight J (1981) Transport phenomena in hydrothermal systems: cooling plutons. Am J Sci 277:937–981Google Scholar
  89. Pallister JS, Hoblitt RP, Reyes AG (1992) A basalt trigger for the 1991 eruptions of Pinatubo volcano? Nature 356:436–428Google Scholar
  90. Palmaesson G, Saemundsson (1974) Iceland in relation to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 2:25–50Google Scholar
  91. Petford N, Kerr RC, Lister JR (1993) Dike transport of granitoid magmas. Geology 21:845–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Petford N, Lister JR, Kerr RC (1994) The ascent of felsic magmas in dykes. Lithos 32:161–168Google Scholar
  93. Perry FV, DePaolo DJ, Baldridge WS (1993) Neodymium isotopic evidence for decreasing crustal contributions to Cenozoic ignimbrites of the western United States: implications for the thermal evolution of the Cordilleran crust. Geol Soc Am Bull 105:872–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pollard DD, Segall P (1987) Theoretical displacements and stresses near fractures in rock: with application to faults, joints, veins, dikes, and solution surfaces. In: Atkinson BK (ed) Fracture mechanics of rock. Academic Press, London, pp 277–249Google Scholar
  95. Pritchard ME, Simons M (2002) A satellite geodetic survey of large-scale deformation of volcanic centres in the central Andes. Nature 418:167–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Punongbayan RS et al. (1991) Lessons learned from a major eruption, Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 172:545, 552–553, 555Google Scholar
  97. Pyle DM (1998) Forecasting sizes and repose times of future extreme volcanic events. Geology 26:367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Reymer A, Schubert G (1984) Phanerozoic addition rates to the continental crust and crustal growth. Tectonics 3:63–77Google Scholar
  99. Ribe NM, Christensen UR (1999) The dynamical origin of Hawaiian volcanism. Earth Planet Sci Lett 171(4):517–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Richter DH, Eaton JP, Murata KJ, Ault WU, Krivoy HL (1996) Chronological narrative of the 1959–60 eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 537-DGoogle Scholar
  101. Rubie DC (1983) Reaction enhanced ductility; the role of solid–solid univariant reactions in the deformation of the crust and mantle. Tectonophysics 96:233–261Google Scholar
  102. Rubin AM (1995a) Getting granite dikes out of the source region. J Geophys Res 100:5911–5929Google Scholar
  103. Rubin AM (1995b) Propagation of magma-filled cracks. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 23:287–336Google Scholar
  104. Sammis CG, Julian BR (1987) Fracture instabilities accompanying dike intrusion. J Geophys Res 92:2597–2605Google Scholar
  105. Schmitz MD (1995) Geochemical studies of the Rotoiti pyroclastic eruption, Okataina volcanic center, Taupo volcanic zone, North Island, New Zealand. MSc Thesis, Auckland UniversityGoogle Scholar
  106. Schimozuro D, Kubo N (1983) Volcano spacing and subduction. In: Arc volcanism; physics and tectonics. Proceedings 1981 IAVCEI, pp 141–151Google Scholar
  107. Shaw HR (1972) Viscosities of magmatic silicate liquids: an empirical method of prediction. Am J Sci 272:870–893Google Scholar
  108. Simkin T (1993) Terrestrial volcanism in space and time. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 21:427–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sims KWW, DePaolo DJ, Murrell MT, Baldridge WS, Goldstein S, Clague D, Jull M (1999) Porosity of the melting zone and variations in solid mantle upwelling rate beneath Hawaii: inferences from 238U–230Th–226Ra and 235U–231Pa. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:4119–4138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith RL (1979) Ash-flow magmatism. Geol Soc Am Spec Paper 180:5–27Google Scholar
  111. Smith RL, Bailey RA (1968) Resurgent cauldrons. Geol Soc Am Mem 116:613–662Google Scholar
  112. Snyder D, Tait S (1995) Replenishment of magma chambers: comparison of fluid mechanics experiments with field relations. Contrib Mineral Petrol 122:230–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Snyder D, Tait S (1996) Magma mixing by convective entrainment. Nature 379:529–531Google Scholar
  114. Sparks SR, Sigurdson H, Wilson L (1977) Magma mixing a mechanism for triggering acid explosive eruptions. Nature 267:315–318Google Scholar
  115. Spell TL, Harrison TM, Wolfe JA (1990) 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Bandelier Tuff and San Diego Canyon ignimbrites, Jemez mountains, New Mexico: temporal constraints on magmatic evolution. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 43:175–193Google Scholar
  116. Spell TL, McDougall I, Doulgeris A (1996) Cerro Toledo Rhyolite, Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of eruptions between two caldera-forming events. Geol Soc Am Bull 108:1549–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Spence DA, Turcotte DL (1985) Magma-driven crack propagation; a mechanism for magma migration through the lithosphere. J Geophys Res 90:575–580Google Scholar
  118. Spera FJ, Crisp JA (1981) Eruption volume, periodicity, and caldera area: relationships and inferences on development of compositional zonation in silicic magma chambers. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 11:169–187Google Scholar
  119. Stormer JC, Whitney JA (1985) Two feldspar and iron–titanium oxide equilibria in silicic magmas and the depth of origin of large volume ash flows. Am Mineral 70:52–64Google Scholar
  120. Tait S, Jaupart C, Vergnoille S (1989) Pressure, gas content and eruption periodicity of a shallow crystallizing magma chamber. Earth Planet Sci Lett 92:107–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tatsumi Y, Eggins S (1995) Subduction zone magmatism. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  122. Taylor HP (1971) Oxygen isotope evidence for large-scale interaction between meteoric ground waters and Tertiary granodiorite intrusions, western Cascade range, Oregon. J Geophys Res 76:7855–7874Google Scholar
  123. Taylor HP, Forester RW (1971) Low 18O igneous rocks from the intrusive complexes of Skye, Mull, and Ardnamurchan, western Scotland. J Petrol 12:465–497Google Scholar
  124. Taylor HP, Forester RW (1979) An oxygen and hydrogen isotope study of the Skaergaard intrusion and its country rocks: a description of a 55-m.y.-old fossil hydrothermal system. J Petrol 20:355–419Google Scholar
  125. Wadge G (1980) Output rate of magma from active central volcanoes. Nature 288:253–255Google Scholar
  126. Wallace PJ, Anderson AT, Davis AM (1995) Quantification of pre-eruptive exsolved gas contents in silicic magmas. Nature 377:612–616Google Scholar
  127. Watson S, McKenzie DP (1991) Melt generation by plumes: a study of Hawaiian volcanism. J Petrol 32:501–537Google Scholar
  128. Weinberg RF (1994) Diapiric ascent of magmas through power law crust and mantle. J Geophys Res 99:9543–9560Google Scholar
  129. Wiebe RA (1974) Coexisting intermediate and basic magmas, Ingonish, Cape Breton Island. J Geol 82:74–87Google Scholar
  130. Wiebe RA (1993) Basaltic injections into floored silicic magma chambers. EOS 74:1–3Google Scholar
  131. Wiebe RA (1994) Silicic magmas as traps for basaltic magmas: the Cadillac Mountain Intrusive complex, Mount Desert Island, Maine. J Geol 102:423–437Google Scholar
  132. Wiebe RA (1996) Mafic–silicic layered intrusions: the role of basaltic injections on magmatic processes and the evolution of silicic magma chambers. Trans R Soc Edinb 87:233–242Google Scholar
  133. Wiebe RA, Collins WJ (1998) Depositional features and stratigraphic sections in granitic plutons: implications for the emplacement and crystallization of granitic magma. J Struct Geol 20:1273–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wiebe RA, Blair KD, Hawkins DP, Sabine CP (2002) Mafic injections, in situ hybridization, and crystal accumulation in the Pyramid Peak granite, California. Geol Soc Am Bull 114:909–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wilson CJN, Houghton BF, McWilliams MO, Lanphere MA, Weaver SO, Brigos RM (1995) Volcanic and structural evolution of the Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand: a review. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 68:1–28Google Scholar
  136. Wilson L, Sparks RSJ, Walker GPL (1980) Explosive volcanic eruptions. IV, The control of magma properties and conduit geometry on eruption column behavior. Geophys J R Astron Soc 63:117–148Google Scholar
  137. Wood CA (1984) Calderas: a planetary perspective. J Geophys Res 89:8391–8406Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada M5S 1A7
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Planetary ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Earth Sciences DivisionE.O. Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations