Rainfall partitioning and related hydrochemical fluxes in a diverse and in a mono specific (Phenakospermum guyannense) secondary vegetation stand in eastern Amazonia
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Rainfall partitioning into throughfall and stemflow was studied in a diverse and in a mono specific stand of secondary vegetation in Eastern Amazonia. The nutrient concentrations in the water were analysed in order to quantify the related hydrochemical fluxes. Secondary vegetation forms the fallow in the local shifting cultivation system and is usually dominated by shrubs and trees. Phenakospermum guyannense (Strelitziaceae), a banana-like herb, is one of the predominant non-woody species. The study was conducted during an 18-month period in a 2.5-year-old relatively species-rich stand and a 10-year-old stand dominated by P. guyannense. In a year with 1956 mm of rainfall 65% (1281 mm) of this quantity reached the soil as throughfall in the diverse stand and 38% (743 mm) in the mono specific stand. Stemflow was estimated to be 23% and 41% respectively. P. guyannense and Banara guianensis (Flacourtiaceae), a tree species, were causing these high funnelling effects. In the young diverse stand B. guianensis had a stemflow of more than 200 l year−1 and P. guyannense had a median flux of 77 l year−1 per pseudostem. In the older stand the taller plants of P.␣guyannense collected 644 l year−1 per pseudostem on the median. The reason for these high values could be the banana-like growth form of P. guyannense and the crown morphology of B. guianensis, which has inclined branches. The low proportion of throughfall and the high stemflow values differ from all previous studies in Amazonian primary forests. The proximity to the Atlantic Ocean strongly influenced the nutrient fluxes via rainfall at our study site. This becomes obvious from the high Na and Cl fluxes with rainfall (19.7 kg Na ha−1 year−1, 37.2 kg Cl ha−1 year−1) which were approximately equal to the Na and Cl fluxes with the sum of throughfall and stemflow for both stands. K fluxes in throughfall and stemflow in both stands were higher than in rainfall by a factor of 8. The high K enrichment during the crown passage is assumed to be caused by a␣high K concentration in the leaf tissue resulting in enhanced leaching from the leaves. In months with low␣rainfall the concentrations of Ca, Mg, S and Cl in throughfall of the diverse stand were significantly higher than in months with high rainfall. This was mainly due to vegetation burns in the dry period, which resulted in ash deposition on the canopy and subsequent wash-off and solution of ash particles.
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