Local adaptation to mycorrhizal fungi in geographically close Lobelia siphilitica populations
- 26 Downloads
Mutualism between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is common, and plant populations are expected to have adapted to the AM fungal communities occupying their roots. Tests of this hypothesis have frequently been done with plant populations that are tens to hundreds of kilometers apart. However, because AM fungal community composition differs at scales < 1 km, local adaptation of plant populations to AM fungi may occur at small spatial scales, but this prediction has not been tested. Furthermore, prior experiments do not often experimentally identify whether adaptation is related to specific mycorrhizal functions. To test for plant adaptation to AM fungal communities at small spatial scales, and whether adaptation is associated with the nutritional benefits that AM fungi provide to plants, we grew Lobelia siphilitica plants from two geographically close populations (1.4 km apart) in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment with soil biota that either included (whole soil) or excluded AM fungi (microbial wash) at both low and high soil phosphorus availability. Though both plant populations responded positively to the presence of AM fungi in the whole soil biota treatment relative to the microbial wash treatment, the average growth response of plant populations to mycorrhizal fungi was highest when local populations were grown with local AM fungi. In addition, local adaptation was only observed in the presence of AM fungi at low phosphorus levels. Thus, local adaptation of plant populations to AM fungi is present at spatial scales that are much smaller than previously demonstrated and occurred primarily to enhance phosphorus acquisition.
KeywordsAdaptation Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Mutualism Phosphorus Soil biota
We thank E. Bothwell and C.M. Caruso for assistance at various stages of the project, and the two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments on the manuscript.
Author contribution statement
PR and HM developed the hypotheses and designed the study. PR carried out the research. PR and HM analyzed data and co-wrote the manuscript.
This research was funded by a grant (RGPIN 261300-2013) from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Brundrett MC (1994) Clearing and staining mycorrhizal roots. In: Brundrett MC, Melville L, Peterson L (eds) Practical methods in mycorrhizal research. Mycologue, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada, pp 42–46Google Scholar
- Brundrett MC (2009) Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understanding the global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis. Plant Soil 320:37–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9877-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cahill JF Jr, Cale JA, Karst J, Bao T, Pec GJ, Erbilgin N (2017) No silver bullet: different soil handling techniques are useful for different research questions, exhibit differential type I and II error rates, and are sensitive to sampling intensity. New Phytol 216:11–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.14141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Clausen J, Keck DD, Hiesey WM (1948) Experimental studies on the nature of species. III. Environmental responses of climactic races of Achillea, 581st edn. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication, Washington, p 129Google Scholar
- Daniels BA, McCool PM, Menge JA (1981) Comparative inoculum potential of spores of six vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 89:385–391. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1981.tb02319.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Darwin CR (1862) On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Futuyma DJ, Moreno G (1988) The evolution of ecological specialization. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19:207–233. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.19.110188.001231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoeksema JD, Chaudhary VB, Gehring CA, Johnson NC, Karst J, Koide RT, Pringle A, Zabinski C, Bever JD, Moore JC, Wilson GW, Klironomos JN, Umbanhowar J (2010) A meta-analysis of context-dependency in plant response to inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi. Ecol Lett 13:394–407. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01430.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Koide RT, Li M (1989) Appropriate controls for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza research. New Phytol 111:35–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1989.tb04215.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Koske RE, Tessier B (1983) A convenient, permanent slide mounting medium. Newsl Mycol Soc Am 34:59Google Scholar
- McGonigle TP, Miller MH, Evans DG, Fairchild GL, Swan JA (1990) A new method which gives an objective measure of colonization of roots by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol 115:68–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1990.tb00476.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ravnskov S, Jakobsen I (1995) Functional compatibility in arbuscular mycorrhizas measured as hyphal P transport to the plant. New Phytol 129:611–618. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1995.tb03029.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rúa MA, Antoninka A, Antunes PM, Chaudhary VB, Gehring C, Lamit LJ, Piculell BJ, Bever JD, Zabinski C, Meadow JF, Lajeunesse MJ, Milligan BG, Karst J, Hoeksema JD (2016) Home-field advantage? evidence of local adaptation among plants, soil, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi through meta-analysis. BMC Evol Biol 16:122. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-016-0698-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Smith S, Read D (2008) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 3rd edn. Elsevier, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Smith SE, Smith FA, Jakobsen I (2004) Functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses: the contribution of the mycorrhizal P uptake pathway is not correlated with mycorrhizal responses in growth or total P uptake. New Phytol 162:511–524. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01039.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry, 3rd edn. W.H. Freeman and Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Vierheilig H, Coughlan AP, Wyss U, Piché Y (1998) Ink and vinegar, a simple staining technique for arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi. Appl Env Microb 64:5004–5007Google Scholar