Advertisement

Oecologia

pp 1–12 | Cite as

Resprouting by seedlings of four North American deciduous broadleaved tree species following experimental burning

  • Tara L. KeyserEmail author
Community ecology – original research

Abstract

In eastern North American Quercus forests, the historic fire regime, characterized by periodic, low-intensity surface fire, facilitated the development and maintenance of mid-successional Quercus forests across multiple spatial and temporal scales. One physiological mechanism favoring Quercus over mesophytic and/or shade-tolerant deciduous broadleaved species is prolific and vigorous resprouting following topkill. Generalizations regarding interspecific differences in fire-induced resprouting are confounded by interactions between biotic and abiotic factors. The goal of this study was to quantify resprout dynamics by 2- and 3-year-old seedlings of four prominent deciduous broadleaved species (Acer rubrum, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus alba, and Q. rubra) following topkill via experimental burning, where seedling age, competition, fire intensity, and light were controlled. Resprouting was independent of fire intensity and seedling size. The resprout rate of Q. rubra (82%) was greater than that of A. rubrum (53%), L. tulipifera (56%), and Q. alba (52%). A second burn conducted a year later did little to inhibit resprouting by topkilled individuals. After both burns, L. tulipifera sprouts were significantly taller than the other species. Although absolute height of Q. rubra sprouts was greater than A. rubrum after the first burn, absolute height of Q. rubra sprouts was lower than A. rubrum following the second burn. Results suggest that broad, cross-genus generalizations may not accurately reflect interspecific differences in resprout potential, which may have implications related to the ability to regenerate and recruit Quercus under a re-introduced periodic fire regime.

Keywords

Quercus Vegetative reproduction Prescribed fire Restoration 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was internally funded by the USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Stations’, Research Work Unit 4157. The author graciously thanks Jacqui Adams, Kenny Frick, Brandy Benz, and Jeremey Peyton for assistance during treatment implementation and data collection. This paper was written and prepared by USA Government employees on official time and, therefore, is in the public domain and not subject to copyright in the USA.

Author contribution statement

TLK conceived, designed, and executed this study and wrote the manuscript. No other person is entitled to authorship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

442_2019_4397_MOESM1_ESM.doc (200 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 200 kb)

References

  1. Abrams MD (1992) Fire and the development of oak forests in eastern North America. Bioscience 42:346–353.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1311781 Google Scholar
  2. Alexander HD, Arthur MA, Loftis DL, Green SR (2008) Survival and growth of upland oak and co-occuring competitor seedlings following single and repeated prescribed fires. For Ecol Manag 256:1021–1030.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.06.004 Google Scholar
  3. Arthur MA, Alexander HD, Dey DC, Schweitzer CJ, Loftis DL (2012) Refining the oak-fire hypothesis for management of oak-dominated forests of the eastern United States. J For 110:257–266.  https://doi.org/10.5849/jof.11-080 Google Scholar
  4. Barnes TA, Van Lear DH (1998) Prescribed fire effects on advanced regeneration in mixed hardwood stands. South J Appl For 22:138–142.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sjaf/22.3.138 Google Scholar
  5. Benjamini Y, Hockberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc B 57:289–300.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2517-6161.1995.tb02031.x Google Scholar
  6. Bond WJ, Midley JJ (2001) Ecology of sprouting in woody plants: the persistence niche. Trends Ecol Evol 16:45–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)02033-4 Google Scholar
  7. Brose PH (2010) Long-term effects of single prescribed fires on hardwood regeneration in oak shelterwood stands. For Ecol Manag 260:1516–1524.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.07.050 Google Scholar
  8. Brose PH (2014) Development of prescribed fire as a silvicultural tool for the upland oak forests of the eastern United States. J For 112:525–533.  https://doi.org/10.5849/jof.13-088 Google Scholar
  9. Brose PH, Rebbeck J (2017) A comparison of the survival and development of the seedlings of four upland oak species grown in four different understory light environments. J For 115:159–166.  https://doi.org/10.5849/jof.15-155 Google Scholar
  10. Brose PH, Van Lear DH (1998) Responses of hardwood advance regeneration to seasonal prescribed fires in oak-dominated shelterwood stands. Can J For Res 28:331–339.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x97-218 Google Scholar
  11. Brose PH, Van Lear DH (2004) Survival of hardwood regeneration during prescribed fires: the importance of root development and root collar location. USDA Forest Service, Gen Tech Rep SRS-73, pp 123–127Google Scholar
  12. Brose P, Schuler T, Van Lear D, Berst J (2001) Bring fire back: the changing regimes of the Appalachian mixed-oak forests. J For 99:30–35.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jof/99.11.30 Google Scholar
  13. Brose PH, Dey DC, Phillips RJ, Waldrop TA (2013) A meta-analysis of the fire-oak hypothesis: does prescribed burning promote oak reproduction in eastern North America. For Sci 59:322–334.  https://doi.org/10.5849/forsci.12-039 Google Scholar
  14. Brose PH, Dey DC, Waldrop TA (2014) The fire-oak literature of eastern North America: synthesis and guidelines. USDA Forest Service, Gen Tech Rep NRS-135Google Scholar
  15. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. Springer, Heidelberg.  https://doi.org/10.1007/b97636 Google Scholar
  16. Canadell J, Lloret F, López-Soria L (1991) Resprouting vigour of two Mediterranean shrub species after experimental fire treatments. Vegetatio 95:119–126.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00045210 Google Scholar
  17. Canham CD, Kobe RK, Latty EF, Chazdon RL (1999) Interspecific and intraspecific variation in tree seedling survival: effects of allocation to roots versus carbohydrate reserves. Oecologia 121:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420050900 Google Scholar
  18. Chapin FS, Schulze ED, Mooney HA (1990) The ecology and economics of storage in plants. Annu Rev Ecol Evol S 21:423–427.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.21.110190.002231 Google Scholar
  19. Clarke PJ, Lawes MJ, Midgley JJ, Lamont BB, Ojeda F, Burrows GE, Enright NJ, Knox KJE (2013) Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire. New Phytol 197:19–35.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12001 Google Scholar
  20. Cruz A, Pérez B, Moreno JM (2003a) Resprouting of the Mediterranean-type shrub Erica australis with modified lignotuber carbohydrate content. J Ecol 91:348–356.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00770.x Google Scholar
  21. Cruz A, Pérez B, Moreno JM (2003b) Plant stored reserves do not drive resprouting of the lignotuberous shrub Erica australis. New Phytol 157:251–261.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00668.x Google Scholar
  22. Delcourt PA, Delcourt HR, Ison CR, Sharp WE, Gremillion KJ (1998) Prehistoric human use of fire, the eastern agricultural complex, and Appalachian oak-chestnut forests, paleoecology of Cliff Palace Pond, Kentucky. Am Antiq 63:263–278.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2694697 Google Scholar
  23. Dey DC (2014) Sustaining oak forests in eastern North America: regeneration and recruitment, the pillars of sustainability. For Sci 60:926–942.  https://doi.org/10.5849/forsci.13-114 Google Scholar
  24. Dietze MC, Clark JS (2008) Changing the gap dynamics paradigm: vegetative regeneration control on forest response to disturbance. Ecol Monogr 78:331–347.  https://doi.org/10.1890/07-0271.1 Google Scholar
  25. Fei FL, Kong NN, Steiner KC, Moser WK, Steiner EB (2011) Change in oak abundance in the eastern United States from 1980 to 2008. For Ecol Manag 262:1370–1377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.06.030 Google Scholar
  26. Frelich LE, Reich PB, Peterson DW (2017) The changing role of fire in mediating the relationships among oaks, grasslands, mesic temperate forests, and boreal forests in the Lake States. J Sustain For 36:421–432.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10549811.2017.1296777 Google Scholar
  27. Gilbert NL, Johnson SL, Gleeson SK, Blankenship BA, Arthur MA (2003) Effects of prescribed fire on physiology and growth of Acer rubrum and Quercus spp. seedlings in an oak-pine forest on the Cumberland Plateau, KY. J Torrey Bot Soc 130:253–264.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3557544 Google Scholar
  28. Green SR, Arthur MA, Blankenship BA (2010) Oak and red maple seedling survival and growth following periodic prescribed fire on xeric ridgetops on the Cumberland Plateau. For Ecol Manag 259:2256–2266.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.02.026 Google Scholar
  29. Guyette RP, Muzika RM, Dey DC (2002) Dynamics of an anthropogenic fire regime. Ecosystems 5:472–486.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-002-0115-7 Google Scholar
  30. Guyette RP, Spetich MA, Stambaugh MC (2006) Historic fire regime dynamics and forcing factors in the Boston Mountains, Arkansas, USA. For Ecol Manag 234:293–304.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.07.016 Google Scholar
  31. Hanberry BB, Kabrick JM, He HS (2014) Densification and state transition across the Missouri Ozarks Landscape. Ecosystems 17:66–81.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-013-9707-7 Google Scholar
  32. Hutchinson TF, Long RP, Rebbeck J, Sutherland EK, Yaussy DA (2012) Repeated prescribed fires alter gap-phase regeneration in mixed-oak forests. Can J For Res 42:303–314.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x11-184 Google Scholar
  33. Johansson T (1986) Development of suckers by 2-year-old Birch (Betula pendula Roth) at different temperatures and light intensities. Scan J For Res 1:17–26.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02827588609382397 Google Scholar
  34. Kabeya D, Sakai S (2005) The relative importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen for the resprouting ability of Quercus crispula seedlings. Ann Bot 96:479–488.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci200 Google Scholar
  35. Kabeya D, Sakai A, Matsul K, Sakai S (2003) Resprouting ability of Quercus crispula seedlings depends on the vegetation cover of their microhabitats. J Plant Res 116:207–216.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-003-0089-3 Google Scholar
  36. Keyser TL, Loftis DL (2015) Stump sprouting of 19 upland hardwood species 1 year following initiation of a shelterwood with reserves silvicultural system in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. New For 46:449–464.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-015-9470-z Google Scholar
  37. Keyser TL, Zarnoch SJ (2014) Stump sprout dynamics in response to reduction in stand density for nine upland hardwood species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. For Ecol Manag 319:29–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.01.045 Google Scholar
  38. Kruger EL, Reich PB (1993) Coppicing affects growth, root:shoot relations and ecophysiology of potted Quercus rubra seedlings. Physiol Plant 89:751–760.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb05281.x Google Scholar
  39. Kruger EL, Reich PB (1997a) Responses of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings: III. Whole-plant growth, biomass distribution, and nitrogen and carbohydrate relations. Can J For Res 27:1841–1850.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x97-138 Google Scholar
  40. Kruger EL, Reich PB (1997b) Responses of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings. I. Post-fire community dynamics. Can J For Res 27:1822–1831.  https://doi.org/10.1139/x97-136 Google Scholar
  41. Larsen DR, Johnson PS (1998) Linking the ecology of natural oak regeneration to silviculture. For Ecol Manag 1:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00233-8 Google Scholar
  42. Lloret F, López-Soria L (1993) Respouting of Erica multiflora after experimental fire treatments. J Veg Sci 4:367–374.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3235595 Google Scholar
  43. Loftis DL (1990) A shelterwood method for regenerating red oak in the southern Appalachians. For Sci 36:917–929.  https://doi.org/10.1093/forestscience/36.4.917 Google Scholar
  44. Lorimer CG (1984) Development of the red maple understory in northeastern oak forests. For Sci 30:3–22.  https://doi.org/10.1093/forestscience/30.1.3 Google Scholar
  45. McEwan RW, Dyer JM, Pederson N (2011) Multiple interacting ecosystem drivers, toward and encompassing hypothesis of oak forest dynamics across eastern North America. Ecography 34:244–256.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06390.x Google Scholar
  46. McPherson K, Williams K (1998) The role of carbohydrate reserves in the growth, resilience, and persistence of cabbage palm seedlings (Sabal palmetto). Oecologia 117:460–468.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420050681 Google Scholar
  47. Menes PA, Mohammed GH (1995) Identifying the root collar on forest tree seedlings. For Chron 71:304–311.  https://doi.org/10.5558/tfc71304-3 Google Scholar
  48. Miyanishi K, Kellman M (1986) The role of root nutrient reserves in regrowth of two savanna shrubs. Can J Bot 64:1244–1248.  https://doi.org/10.1139/b86-171 Google Scholar
  49. Moreno JM, Oechel WC (1991) Fire intensity and herbivory effects on postfire resprouting of Adenostoma fasciculatum in southern California chaparral. Oecologia 85:429–433.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00320621 Google Scholar
  50. Nowacki GJ, Abrams MD (2008) The demise of fire and “mesophication” of forests in the eastern United States. Bioscience 58:123–138.  https://doi.org/10.1641/B580207 Google Scholar
  51. O’Hara KL, Berrille JP (2010) Dynamics of coast redwood sprout clump development in variable light environments. J For Res 15:131–139.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10310-009-0166-0 Google Scholar
  52. Pausas JG, Keeley JE (2014) Evolutionary ecology of resprouting and seedling in fire-prone ecosystems. New Phytol 204:55–65.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12921 Google Scholar
  53. Pederson N, Bell AR, Cook ER, Lall U, Devineni N, Seager R, Eggleston K, Vranes KP (2013) Is an epic pluvial masking the water insecurity of the greater New York City region? J Clim 26:1339–1354.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00723.1 Google Scholar
  54. Poulos HM, Barton AM, Slingsby JA, Bowman DMJS (2018) Do mixed fire regimes shape plant flammability and post-fire recovery strategies? Fire 1:39.  https://doi.org/10.3390/fire1030039 Google Scholar
  55. Sander IL (1971) Height growth of new oak sprouts depends on size of advance reproduction. J For 11:809–811Google Scholar
  56. Villar-Salvador P, Uscola M, Jacobs DF (2015) The role of stored carbohydrates and nitrogen in the growth and stress tolerance of planted forest trees. New For 46:813–839.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-015-9499-z Google Scholar
  57. Zhu WZ, Xiang JS, Wang SG, Li MH (2012) Resprouting ability and mobile carbohydrate reserves in an oak shrubland decline with increasing elevation on the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. For Ecol Manag 278:118–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.04.032 Google Scholar
  58. Zywiec M, Holeska J (2012) Sprouting extends the lifespan of tree species in a seedling bank: 12-year study. For Ecol Manag 284:205–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.08.007 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research StationAshevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations