Limiting similarity and Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis: understanding the drivers of biotic resistance against invasive plant species
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Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain biotic resistance of a recipient plant community based on reduced niche opportunities for invasive alien plant species. The limiting similarity hypothesis predicts that invasive species are less likely to establish in communities of species holding similar functional traits. Likewise, Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis states that invasive species closely related to the native community would be less successful. We tested both using the invasive alien Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Solidago gigantea Aiton, and grassland species used for ecological restoration in central Europe. We classified all plant species into groups based on functional traits obtained from trait databases and calculated the phylogenetic distance among them. In a greenhouse experiment, we submitted the two invasive species at two propagule pressures to competition with communities of ten native species from the same functional group. In another experiment, they were submitted to pairwise competition with native species selected from each functional group. At the community level, highest suppression for both invasive species was observed at low propagule pressure and not explained by similarity in functional traits. Moreover, suppression decreased asymptotically with increasing phylogenetic distance to species of the native community. When submitted to pairwise competition, suppression for both invasive species was also better explained by phylogenetic distance. Overall, our results support Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis but not the limiting similarity hypothesis based on the selected traits. Biotic resistance of native communities against invasive species at an early stage of establishment is enhanced by competitive traits and phylogenetic relatedness.
KeywordsAmbrosia artemisiifolia Functional traits Priority effect Propagule pressure Solidago gigantea
F.A.Y. was supported by a scholarship financed by the European Commission through the Erasmus Mundus Arcoiris program, a grant from Dr.-Ing. Leonhard-Lorenz-Foundation, and the Laura Bassi stipend awarded by Technical University of Munich. C.K. received support by the Evangelisches Studienwerk Villigst e.V., and J.M.J. and J.K. were supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; JE 288/9-1, KO 1741/3-1). We are grateful to Johann Krimmer and Gerhard Karrer for providing the seed material, Tiffany Knight for her advice on the phylogenetic analysis, and Ingolf Kühn for very helpful comments he made at a conference regarding this study. We acknowledge two anonymous referees for helpful comments on the manuscript. We also thank Timo Conradi, Zoe Palmes, Esteban Aliverti, Patrícia Sperotto, Katie Wolcott, and the representatives of the staff at Greenhouse Laboratory Center Dürnast, Robert Hansel, and Ivonne Jüttner for technical help.
Author contribution statement
FAY and CK conceived and designed the experiments, while JK contributed with suggestions to improve them. FAY and CK collected the data, and FAY performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript after discussions with CK, JMJ, and JK. CK, JMJ, and JK improved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
The datasets generated during this study are available in the supporting information as supplementary information files.
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