Mother knows the best mould: an essential role for non-wood dietary components in the life cycle of a saproxylic scarab beetle
Beetles living in tree hollows can feed on a wealth of substrates—e.g. the rotten wood surrounding the cavity, leaf humus falling into the hole, and larval frass accumulating in the cavity. In this paper, we examine the role of these main substrates in Finnish tree hollows in the female preference and larval growth of the hermit beetle Osmoderma barnabita. We rear larvae on diets consisting of wood material (as affected by brown-rot), leaf humus, and larval frass, in varying proportions. To pinpoint the effects of microbes, we contrast larval growth on sterilized versus unsterilized larval frass, and on pure mycelia of the cavity-creating fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. Finally, to relate larval performance to female preference, we examine female choice among the three main substrates used in the larval rearings. We found that the presence of one substrate modifies the influence of another, with larval growth and survival being highest on pure leaf humus. Microbes came with both positive and negative impacts on larval performance, as larvae grew quicker on unsterilized than on sterilized larval frass, but were also struck by higher mortality. On pure fungal mycelia, larvae neither grew nor survived. Female preference reflected larval performance, with leaf humus being preferred over other resources. Overall, our study suggests that organisms inhabiting tree holes may be dependent on subsidies entering the cavity from outside, and that ovipositing females may specifically respond to the presence of such subsidies. Thus, the quality of a microhabitat may depend on what enters it from outside.
KeywordsOsmoderma Wood mould Ecosystem engineer Optimal oviposition Preference–performance hypothesis
We thank Mikko Jokinen from the Environment Department of the City of Turku for the support and encouragement. We are also grateful to Marjo Anttila and Matti Yli-Rekola from the Turku University Botanical Garden for extending help, laboratory space, and access to devices, to Taisto Junger for help with the preparation of larval substrates, and to Bess Hardwick, Marjo Kilpinen and Marjut Wallner for ICP-OES analyses. Financial support by the Vuokko foundation, by the Oscar Öflund’s foundation, by Societas Entomologica Helsingforsiensis and by the Academy of Finland (Grant 138346 to TR) is gratefully acknowledged. Legal permissions for this project were granted by city of Turku and the Centre of Economic Development, Transport and the Environment with diar.nr VARELY/919/07.01/2010, VARELY403/07.01/2011 and VARELY/52/07.01/2012.
Author contribution statement
ML formulated the idea. ML, TR and PN designed the experiments. ML performed the experiments. TR and ML analyzed the results. ML, TR and PN wrote the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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