, Volume 181, Issue 3, pp 709–720 | Cite as

Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape

  • Ryan A. Long
  • R. T. Bowyer
  • Warren P. Porter
  • Paul Mathewson
  • Kevin L. Monteith
  • Scott L. Findholt
  • Brian L. Dick
  • John G. Kie
Physiological ecology - original research


Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North American elk (Cervus elaphus) for areas that reduced costs of thermoregulation and activity, and increased access to high-quality forage, would influence four energetically mediated traits related to fitness: birth mass of young, nutritional condition of adult females at the onset of winter, change in nutritional condition of females between spring and winter, and neonatal survival. We used a biophysical model to map spatiotemporally explicit costs of thermoregulation and activity experienced by elk in a heterogeneous landscape. We then combined model predictions with data on forage characteristics, animal locations, nutritional condition, and mass and survival of young to evaluate behaviorally mediated effects of the energy landscape on fitness-related traits. During spring, when high-quality forage was abundant, female elk that consistently selected low-cost areas before parturition gave birth to larger young than less-selective individuals, and birth mass had a strong, positive influence on probability of survival. As forage quality declined during autumn, however, lactating females that consistently selected the highest quality forage available accrued more fat and entered winter in better condition than less-selective individuals. Results of our study highlight the importance of understanding the dynamic nature of energy landscapes experienced by free-ranging animals.


Behavior Biophysics Energetics Thermoregulation Ingesta-free body fat 



This research was funded by the US Forest Service, the Shikar Safari Club, and Idaho State University. R. Long was supported by a STAR Fellowship from the Environmental Protection Agency, a GK-12 Fellowship from the National Science Foundation, and the American Society of Mammalogists Fellowship in Mammalogy. We are indebted to R. Kennedy, D. Rea, and M. Vavra of the US Forest Service, B. Johnson of the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and K. Stewart, C. McKee, D. Walsh, and J. Zweifel of the University of Nevada Reno for providing substantial logistical support during the study. We thank K. Aho for assistance with statistical analyses. W. Porter is an author of Niche Mapper, patented software that may be purchased for independent research or commercial use. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Author contribution statement

R. A. L. conceived of the study; J. G. K., R. A. L., and R. T. B. designed the study; B. L. D., K. L. M., R. A. L., and S. L. F. conducted fieldwork; P. M., R. A. L., and W. P. P. carried out the biophysical modeling; K. L. M. and R. A. L. analyzed the data; and R. A. L. wrote the manuscript; other authors provided editorial advice.

Supplementary material

442_2016_3604_MOESM1_ESM.docx (59 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 58 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryan A. Long
    • 1
    • 6
  • R. T. Bowyer
    • 1
  • Warren P. Porter
    • 2
  • Paul Mathewson
    • 2
  • Kevin L. Monteith
    • 3
  • Scott L. Findholt
    • 4
  • Brian L. Dick
    • 5
  • John G. Kie
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesIdaho State UniversityPocatelloUSA
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniversity of Wisconsin MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Zoology and PhysiologyUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA
  4. 4.Oregon Department of Fish and WildlifeLa GrandeUSA
  5. 5.US Forest ServicePacific Northwest Research StationLa GrandeUSA
  6. 6.Department of Fish and Wildlife SciencesUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA

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