Effects of land use on taxonomic and functional diversity: a cross-taxon analysis in a Mediterranean landscape
- 974 Downloads
Land-use change is the major driver of biodiversity loss. However, taxonomic diversity (TD) and functional diversity (FD) might respond differently to land-use change, and this response might also vary depending on the biotic group being analysed. In this study, we compare the TD and FD of four biotic groups (ants, birds, herbaceous, woody vegetation) among four land-use types that represent a gradient of land-use intensity in a Mediterranean landscape (Mediterranean shrublands, dehesas, mixed-pine forests, olive groves). Analyses were performed separately at two different spatial scales: the sampling unit scale and the site scale. Land-use intensity effects on TD and FD were quite different and highly varied among the four biotic groups, with no single clear pattern emerging that could be considered general for all organisms. Additive partitioning of species diversity revealed clear contrasting patterns between TD and FD in the percentage of variability observed at each spatial scale. While most variability in TD was found at the larger scales, irregardless of organism group and land-use type, most variability in FD was found at the smallest scale, indicating that species turnover among communities is much greater than functional trait turnover. Finally, we found that TD and FD did not vary consistently, but rather followed different trajectories that largely depended on the biotic group and the intensity of land-use transformation. Our results highlight that the relationship of land use with TD and FD is highly complex and context-dependent.
KeywordsBiodiversity Diversity partitioning Functional traits Land-use intensity Spatial scale
Financial support was received from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Project CGL2011-30266). Carlos P. Carmona was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (TANDEM; Project ID 626392). Jorge Lozano was supported by a Prometeo Fellowship from the SENESCYT, a national agency for Education and Science of the Government of Ecuador. Special thanks to Ana P. García-Nieto for map design and to César A. López, Desiree Rivera, Pedro Zorrilla-Miras, and Jorge Ortega for field assistance. We also thank three anonymous reviewers for the comments of the previous version of the manuscript. We appreciate the use of data from the TRY initiative on plant traits (http://www.try-db.org). The TRY initiative and database are hosted, developed and maintained by J. Kattge and G. Bönisch (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany). TRY is currently supported by DIVERSITAS/Future Earth and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig. The experiments comply with the current laws of the country (Spain) in which the experiments were performed.
Author contribution statement
VH, CPC, FMA, PA, and JAG designed experimental research, VH, CPC, FMA and JAG wrote the manuscript, FMA, MT and PA sampled, identified and measured functional traits of woody and herbaceous vegetation, VH, FMA, JAG, SCC and RA sampled and identified ants, SCC measured functional traits of ants, JAG, JL and VH sampled birds, CPC and VH performed statistical analyses.
- Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) (2012) Informe agrometeorológico y fenológico de la primavera de 2012. AEMET, Madrid. Available at: http://www.aemet.es/documentos/es/serviciosclimaticos/vigilancia_clima/fenologia/feno_primavera_2012.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2015
- Allan E, Manning P, Alt F, Binkenstein J, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, Böhm S, Grassein F, Hölzel N, Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Morris EK, Oelmann Y, Prati D, Renner SC, Rillig MC, Schaefer M, Schloter M, Schmitt B, Schöning I, Schrumpf M, Solly E, Sorkau E, Steckel J, Steffen-Dewenter I, Stempfhuber B, Tschapka M, Weiner CN, Weisser WW, Werner M, Westphal C, Wilcke W, Fischer M (2015) Land use intensification alters ecosystem multifunctionality via loss of biodiversity and changes to functional composition. Ecol Lett 18(8):834–843CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Andersen A (1997) Using ants as bioindicators: multiscale issues in ant community ecology. Ecol Soc 1:8Google Scholar
- Blanca G, Cabezudo B, Cueto M, Fernández López C, Morales Torres C (2009) Flora Vascular de Andalucía Oriental, 4 vols. Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía, SevillaGoogle Scholar
- Castroviejo S (2009) Flora ibérica: Plantaginaceae–Scrophulariaceae. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, MadridGoogle Scholar
- Cramp S, Perrins CM (eds) (1994) Handbook of the Birds of the Western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- De Bello F, Lavorel S, Díaz S, Harrington R, Cornelissen JHC, Bardgett RD, Berg MP, Cipriotti P, Feld CK, Hering D, Martins da Silva P, Potts SG, Sandin L, Souse JP, Storkey J, Wardle DA, Harrison PA (2010) Towards an assessment of multiple ecosystem processes and services via functional traits. Biodivers Conserv 19:2873–2893. doi: 10.1007/s10531-010-9850-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Feld CK, Martins da Silva P, Paulo Sousa J, de Bello F, Bugter R, Grandin U, Hering D, Lavorel S, Mountford O, Pardo I, Pärtel M, Sandin L, Jones KB, Harrison P (2009) Indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem services: a synthesis across ecosystems and spatial scales. Oikos 118:1862–1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gilroy JJ, Medina Uribe CA, Haugaasen T, Edwards DP (2015) Effect of scale on trait predictors of species responses to agriculture. Conserv Biol 29(2):463-472. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12422
- Lavorel S, Storkey J, Bardgett RD, de Bello F, Berg MP, Le Roux X, Moretti M, Mulder C, Pakeman RJ, Díaz S, Harrington R (2013) A novel framework for linking functional diversity of plants with other trophic levels for the quantification of ecosystem services. J Veg Sci 24(5):942–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leps J, De Bello F, Lavorel S, Berman S (2006) Quantifying and interpreting functional diversity of natural communities: practical considerations matter. Preslia 78:481–501Google Scholar
- Mayfield MM, Bonser SP, Morgan JW, Aubin I, McNamara S, Vesk PA (2010) What does species richness tell us about functional trait diversity? Predictions and evidence for responses of species and functional trait diversity to land-use change. Glob Ecol Biogeogr. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00532.x Google Scholar
- Roig X, Espadaler X (2010) Propuesta de grupos funcionales de hormigas para la Península Ibérica y Baleares, y su uso como bioindicadores. Iberomyrmex 2:28–29Google Scholar
- Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2015) Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1. Available from: http://data.kew.org/sid/
- Ruiz de la Torre J (2006) Flora mayor. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, MadridGoogle Scholar
- Team R Core (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
- Vandewalle M, Bello F, Berg MP, Bolger T, Dolédec S, Dubs F, Feld CK, Harrington R, Harrison PA, Lavorel S, Martins da Silva P, Moretti M, Niemelä J, Santos P, Sattler T, Sousa JP, Sykes MT, Vanbergen AJ, Woodcock BA (2010) Functional traits as indicators of biodiversity response to land use changes across ecosystems and organisms. Biodivers Conserv 19:2921–2947. doi: 10.1007/s10531-010-9798-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar