Oecologia

, Volume 176, Issue 1, pp 285–296

How will coral reef fish communities respond to climate-driven disturbances? Insight from landscape-scale perturbations

  • Thomas C. Adam
  • Andrew J. Brooks
  • Sally J. Holbrook
  • Russell J. Schmitt
  • Libe Washburn
  • Giacomo Bernardi
Global change ecology - Original research

Abstract

Global climate change is rapidly altering disturbance regimes in many ecosystems including coral reefs, yet the long-term impacts of these changes on ecosystem structure and function are difficult to predict. A major ecosystem service provided by coral reefs is the provisioning of physical habitat for other organisms, and consequently, many of the effects of climate change on coral reefs will be mediated by their impacts on habitat structure. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the independent and combined effects of coral mortality and loss of physical habitat on reef-associated biota. Here, we use a unique series of events affecting the coral reefs around the Pacific island of Moorea, French Polynesia to differentiate between the impacts of coral mortality and the degradation of physical habitat on the structure of reef fish communities. We found that, by removing large amounts of physical habitat, a tropical cyclone had larger impacts on reef fish communities than an outbreak of coral-eating sea stars that caused widespread coral mortality but left the physical structure intact. In addition, the impacts of declining structural complexity on reef fish assemblages accelerated as structure became increasingly rare. Structure provided by dead coral colonies can take up to decades to erode following coral mortality, and, consequently, our results suggest that predictions based on short-term studies are likely to grossly underestimate the long-term impacts of coral decline on reef fish communities.

Keywords

Habitat loss Resilience Storms Acanthaster planci Coral bleaching Climate change 

Supplementary material

442_2014_3011_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (491 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Supporting Information legends Table S1. Fish functional groups Table S2. Competing models describing the relationships between live coral and structure and attributes of the reef fish assemblage Fig. S1. Community structure of fishes on the undisturbed back reefs and fringing reefs of Moorea Fig. S2. Changes in the total abundance of fishes Fig. S3. Changes in the species richness of fishes Fig. S4. Dynamics of invertebrate consumers, planktivores and piscivores(PDF 491 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. Adam
    • 1
  • Andrew J. Brooks
    • 1
  • Sally J. Holbrook
    • 1
    • 2
  • Russell J. Schmitt
    • 1
    • 2
  • Libe Washburn
    • 1
    • 3
  • Giacomo Bernardi
    • 4
  1. 1.Coastal Research Center, Marine Science InstituteUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  3. 3.Department of GeographyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  4. 4.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

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