Oecologia

, Volume 176, Issue 1, pp 69–80

Testing the risk of predation hypothesis: the influence of recolonizing wolves on habitat use by moose

  • Kerry L. Nicholson
  • Cyril Milleret
  • Johan Månsson
  • Håkan Sand
Behavioral ecology - Original research

Abstract

Considered as absent throughout Scandinavia for >100 years, wolves (Canis lupus) have recently naturally recolonized south-central Sweden. This recolonization has provided an opportunity to study behavioral responses of moose (Alces alces) to wolves. We used satellite telemetry locations from collared moose and wolves to determine whether moose habitat use was affected by predation risk based on wolf use distributions. Moose habitat use was influenced by reproductive status and time of day and showed a different selection pattern between winter and summer, but there was weak evidence that moose habitat use depended on predation risk. The seemingly weak response may have several underlying explanations that are not mutually exclusive from the long term absence of non-human predation pressure: intensive harvest by humans during the last century is more important than wolf predation as an influence on moose behavior; moose have not adapted to recolonizing wolves; and responses may include other behavioral adaptations or occur at finer temporal and spatial levels than investigated.

Keywords

Anti-predator behaviour Foraging trade-offs Habitat shift Landscape of risk Trophic cascade Resource selection 

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PNG 263 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (PNG 198 kb)
442_2014_3004_MOESM3_ESM.docx (23 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 24 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kerry L. Nicholson
    • 1
  • Cyril Milleret
    • 1
    • 2
  • Johan Månsson
    • 1
  • Håkan Sand
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EcologyGrimsö Wildlife Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesRiddarhyttanSweden
  2. 2.Faculty of Forestry and Wildlife ManagementHedmark University CollegeKoppangNorway

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