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Oecologia

, Volume 176, Issue 1, pp 81–94 | Cite as

Understanding how lake populations of arctic char are structured and function with special consideration of the potential effects of climate change: a multi-faceted approach

  • Phaedra BudyEmail author
  • Chris Luecke
Population ecology - Original research

Abstract

Size dimorphism in fish populations, both its causes and consequences, has been an area of considerable focus; however, uncertainty remains whether size dimorphism is dynamic or stabilizing and about the role of exogenous factors. Here, we explored patterns among empirical vital rates, population structure, abundance and trend, and predicted the effects of climate change on populations of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in two lakes. Both populations cycle dramatically between dominance by small (≤300 mm) and large (>300 mm) char. Apparent survival (Φ) and specific growth rates (SGR) were relatively high (40–96 %; SGR range 0.03–1.5 %) and comparable to those of conspecifics at lower latitudes. Climate change scenarios mimicked observed patterns of warming and resulted in temperatures closer to optimal for char growth (15.15 °C) and a longer growing season. An increase in consumption rates (28–34 %) under climate change scenarios led to much greater growth rates (23–34 %). Higher growth rates predicted under climate change resulted in an even greater predicted amplitude of cycles in population structure as well as an increase in reproductive output (R o) and decrease in generation time (G o). Collectively, these results indicate arctic char populations (not just individuals) are extremely sensitive to small changes in the number of ice-free days. We hypothesize years with a longer growing season, predicted to occur more often under climate change, produce elevated growth rates of small char and act in a manner similar to a “resource pulse,” allowing a sub-set of small char to “break through,” thus setting the cycle in population structure.

Keywords

Temperature Physiology Bioenergetics Food limitation Fish growth 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) grant, DEB Long Term Ecological Research (DEB 1026843) and by the Toolik Field Station, managed by the Institute of Arctic Biology at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with cooperative agreement support from the Division of Arctic Sciences of the Office of Polar Programs at NSF. Additional support was provided by the US Geological Survey, Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (in-kind) and The Ecology Center at Utah State University (USU). R. Al-Chokhachy, N. Bouwes, S. Klobucar, and B. Roper all provided assistance in the field, and G. P. Thiede provided extensive logistical support. Brett Roper, Brian Laub, and two anonymous reviewers provided constructive criticism on previous drafts of this manuscript. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. This study was performed under the auspices of the USU IACUC protocol number 1539.

Supplementary material

442_2014_2993_MOESM1_ESM.docx (30 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 30 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.U.S. Geological Survey, Utah Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Watershed Sciences, and The Ecology CenterUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  2. 2.Department of Watershed Sciences and The Ecology CenterUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

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