, Volume 170, Issue 3, pp 585–603 | Cite as

Density dependence: an ecological Tower of Babel

  • Salvador Herrando-PérezEmail author
  • Steven Delean
  • Barry W. Brook
  • Corey J. A. Bradshaw
Concepts, Reviews and Syntheses


The concept of density dependence represents the effect of changing population size on demographic rates and captures the demographic role of social and trophic mechanisms (e.g. competition, cooperation, parasitism or predation). Ecologists have coined more than 60 terms to denote different statistical and semantic properties of this concept, resulting in a formidable lexicon of synonymies and polysemies. We have examined the vocabulary of density dependence used in the modern ecological literature from the foundational lexicon developed by Smith, Allee, Haldane, Neave and Varley. A few simple rules suffice to abate terminological inconsistency and to enhance the biological meaning of this important concept. Correct citation of original references by ecologists and research journals could ameliorate terminological standards in our discipline and avoid linguistic confusion of mathematically and theoretically complex patterns.


Allee effect Demographic rate Density feedback Population dynamics Regulation Terminology 



We thank R. M. May for encouraging the publication of this study; L. Berec, A.A. Berryman, T. Coulson, R.P. Freckleton and P. Lundberg for helpful comments on an early version of the manuscript; C.R. McMahon for his stimulating viewpoints. Funding was provided by an Endeavour International Postgraduate Scholarship (University of Adelaide) to SHP, and by an Australian Research Council Discovery Project grant (DP0878582) to CJAB.

Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

442_2012_2347_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (571 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 571 kb)


  1. Adams CC (1918) Migration as a factor in evolution: its ecological dynamics. Am Nat 52:465–490Google Scholar
  2. Adams DC, DiBitetti MS, Janson CH, Slobodkin LB, Valenzuela N (1997) An ‘‘audience effect’’ for ecological terminology: use and misuse of jargon. Oikos 80:632–636Google Scholar
  3. Allee WC (1927) Animal aggregations. Q Rev Biol 2:367–398Google Scholar
  4. Allee WC (1931a) Animal aggregations. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  5. Allee WC (1931b) Co-operation among animals. Am J Sociol 37:386–398Google Scholar
  6. Allee WC (1938) The social life of animals. William Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Allee WC (1941) Integration of problems concerning protozoan populations with those of general biology. Am Nat 75:473–487Google Scholar
  8. Allee WC, Emerson AE, Park O, Park T, Schmidt KP (1949) Principles of animal ecology. W.P. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen JC, Schaffer WM, Rosko D (1993) Chaos reduces species extinction by amplifying local population noise. Nature 364:229–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Amarasekare P (2004) Spatial dynamics of mutualistic interactions. J Anim Ecol 73:128–142Google Scholar
  11. Andrewartha HG (1958) The use of conceptual models in population dynamics. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Ecol 22:219–232Google Scholar
  12. Andrewartha HG (1959) Density-dependent factors in ecology. Nature 183:200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Andrewartha HG (ed) (1970) Introduction to the study of animal populations. Methuen & Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Andrewartha HG, Birch LC (1954) The distribution and abundance of animals. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  15. Bagchi R, Swinfield T, Gallery RE, Lewis OT, Gripenberg S, Narayan L, Freckleton RP (2010) Testing the Janzen–Connell mechanism: pathogens cause overcompensating density dependence in a tropical tree. Ecol Lett 13:1262–1269Google Scholar
  16. Beckerman AP, Benton TG, Ranta E, Kaitala V, Lundberg P (2002) Population dynamic consequences of delayed life-history effects. Trends Ecol Evol 17:263–269Google Scholar
  17. Beentjes MP, Carbines GD (2005) Population structure and relative abundance of blue cod (Parapercis colias) off banks Peninsula and in Dusky sound, New Zealand. NZ J Mar Freshwat Res 39:77–90Google Scholar
  18. Bellows TS (1981) The descriptive properties of some models for density dependence. J Anim Ecol 50:139–156Google Scholar
  19. Belsky AJ (1986) Does herbivory benefit plants? A review of evidence. Am Nat 127:870–892Google Scholar
  20. Berec L, Angulo E, Courchamp F (2007) Multiple Allee effects and population management. Trends Ecol Evol 22:185–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Berryman AA (1989) The conceptual foundations of ecological dynamics. Bull Ecol Soc Am 70:230–236Google Scholar
  22. Berryman AA (1991) Stabilization or regulation: what it all means! Oecologia 86:140–143Google Scholar
  23. Berryman AA (2002) Population: a central concept for ecology. Oikos 97:439–442Google Scholar
  24. Berryman AA (2004) Limiting factors and population regulation. Oikos 105:667–670Google Scholar
  25. Berryman AA, Lima M, Hawkins BA (2002) Population regulation, emergent properties, and a requiem for density dependence. Oikos 99:600–606Google Scholar
  26. Bjorkstedt EP (2000) Stock-recruitment relationships for life cycles that exhibit concurrent density dependence. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:459–467Google Scholar
  27. Bjørnstad ON, Grenfell BT (2001) Noisy clockwork: time series analysis of population fluctuations in animals. Science 293:638–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bjørnstad ON, Falck N, Stenseth NC (1995) A geographic gradient in small rodent density fluctuations: a statistical modelling approach. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 262:127–133Google Scholar
  29. Bohan DA, Boursault A, Brooks DR, Petit S (2011) National-scale regulation of the weed seedbank by carabid predators. J Appl Ecol 48:888–898Google Scholar
  30. Boyce MS, Sinclair ARE, White GC (1999) Seasonal compensation of predation and harvesting. Oikos 87:419–426Google Scholar
  31. Brook BW, Bradshaw CJA (2006) Strength of evidence for density dependence in abundance time series of 1198 species. Ecology 87:1445–1451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bull JC, Bonsall MB (2008) Overcompensatory population dynamic responses to environmental stochasticity. J Anim Ecol 77:1296–1305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bulmer MG (1975) The statistical analysis of density dependence. Biometrics 31:901–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Burns GP (1920) Tolerance of forest trees and its relation to forest succession. J For 18:610–615Google Scholar
  35. Caughley G, Sinclair ARE (1994) Wildlife ecology and management. Blackwell Science, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  36. Chapman RN (1928) The quantitative analysis of environmental factors. Ecology 9:111–122Google Scholar
  37. Choi KH, Kimmerer WJ (2008) Mate limitation in an estuarine population of copepods. Limnol Oceanogr 53:1656–1664Google Scholar
  38. Clark JS (1992) Density-independent mortality, density compensation, gap formation and self-thinning in plant populations. Theor Popul Biol 42:172–198Google Scholar
  39. Clark F, Brook BW, Delean S, Akçakaya RH, Bradshaw CJA (2010) The theta-logistic is unreliable for modelling most census data. Methods Ecol Evol 1:253–262Google Scholar
  40. Clements FE (1935) Experimental ecology in the public service. Ecology 16:342–363Google Scholar
  41. Clements FE, Shelford VE (1939) Bio-ecology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Clements FE, Weaver JE, Hanson HC (1929) Plant competition. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  43. Comita LS, Muller-Landau HC, Aguilar S, Hubbell SP (2010) Asymmetric density dependence shapes species abundances in a tropical tree community. Science 329:330–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cooper G (2001) Must there be a balance of nature? Biol Philos 16:481–506Google Scholar
  45. Courchamp F, Clutton-Brock T, Grenfell B (1999) Inverse density dependence and the Allee effect. Trends Ecol Evol 14:405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Courchamp F, Clutton-Brock T, Grenfell B (2000) Multipack dynamics and the Allee effect in the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus. Anim Conserv 3:277–285Google Scholar
  47. Courchamp F, Berec L, Gascoigne J (2008) Allee effects in ecology and conservation. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  48. Crowley PH (1992) Density dependence, boundedness, and attraction: detecting stability in stochastic systems. Oecologia 90:246–254Google Scholar
  49. Darwin C (1859) The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. de Roos AM, Schellekens T, van Kooten T, van de Wolfshaar K, Claessen D, Persson L (2007) Food-dependent growth leads to overcompensation in stage-specific biomass when mortality increases: the influence of maturation versus reproduction regulation. Am Nat 170:E59–E76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dempster ER (1960) The question of stability with positive feedback. Biometrics 16:481–483Google Scholar
  52. Dempster JP (1983) The natural control of populations of butterflies and moths. Biol Rev 58:461–481Google Scholar
  53. den Boer PJ (1968) Spreading the risk and stabilization of animal numbers. Acta Biotheor 18:165–194Google Scholar
  54. den Boer PJ (1986) Density dependence and the stabilization of animal numbers. 1 The Winter moth. Oecologia 69:507–512Google Scholar
  55. Dennis B (1989) Allee effects: population growth, critical density, and the chance of extinction. Nat Res Model 3:481–538Google Scholar
  56. Dennis B, Taper ML (1994) Density dependence in time series observation of natural populations: estimation and testing. Ecol Monogr 64:205–224Google Scholar
  57. Dennis B, Ponciano JM, Lele SR, Taper ML, Staples DF (2006) Estimating density dependence, process noise, and observation error. Ecol Monogr 76:323–341Google Scholar
  58. Doncaster CP (2006) Comment on “on the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects” III. Science 311:1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Doncaster CP (2008) Non-linear density dependence in time series is not evidence of non-logistic growth. Theor Popul Biol 73:483–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Dornier A, Munoz F, Cheptou PO (2008) Allee effect and self-fertilization in hermaphrodites: reproductive assurance in a structured metapopulation. Evolution 62:2558–2569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Eberhardt LL, Breiwick JM, Demaster DP (2008) Analyzing population growth curves. Oikos 117:1240–1246Google Scholar
  62. Eggleton FE, Clarke GL, Gleanon HA, Korstian CF, Metcalf ZP, Noland LE (1952) Report of the committee on nomenclature of the ecological society of North America at the Cornell University meeting. Cornell University, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  63. Elton C (1927) Animal ecology. Sidgwick & Jackson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  64. Elton C (1950) Review: a fundamental treatise on animal ecology. J Anim Ecol 19:74–78Google Scholar
  65. Fagan WF, Lewis MA, Neubert MG, van den Driessche P (2002) Invasion theory and biological control. Ecol Lett 5:148–157Google Scholar
  66. Fisher RA (1930) The genetical theory of natural selection. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  67. Fowler CW (1981) Density dependence as related to life-history. Ecology 62:602–610Google Scholar
  68. Fowler MS, Ruxton GD (2002) Population dynamic consequences of allee effects. J Theor Biol 215:39–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fox DR, Ridsdillsmith J (1995) Tests for density-dependence revisited. Oecologia 103:435–443Google Scholar
  70. Freckleton RP, Lewis OT (2006) Pathogens, density dependence and the coexistence of tropical trees. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 273:2909–2916Google Scholar
  71. Freckleton RP, Watkinson AR, Green RE, Sutherland WJ (2006) Census error and the detection of density dependence. J Anim Ecol 75:837–851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fujita H (1954) An interpretation of the changes in type of the population density effect upon the oviposition rate. Ecology 35:257Google Scholar
  73. Garfield E (1982) This week’s citation classic: W. E. Ricker. Stock and recruitment. J. Fish. Res. Board Canada 11: 559–623, 1954. Current Contents 21:20Google Scholar
  74. Gascoigne J, Běrec L, Gregory S, Courchamp F (2009) Dangerously few liaisons: a review of mate-finding Allee effects. Popul Ecol 51:355–372Google Scholar
  75. Gilbert CH (1914) Contributions to the life history of the sockeye salmon: No 1. In: Report of the British Columbia Commissioner of Fisheries. Department of Fisheries, Victoria, pp 53–78Google Scholar
  76. Gilpin ME, Ayala FJ (1973) Global models of growth and competition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:3590–3593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gough KF, Kerley GIH (2006) Demography and population dynamics in the elephants Loxodonta africana of Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa: is there evidence of density dependent regulation? Oryx 40:434–441Google Scholar
  78. Gregory SD, Bradshaw CJA, Brook BW, Courchamp F (2010) Limited evidence for the demographic Allee effect from numerous species across taxa. Ecology 91:2151–2161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Haldane JBS (1953) Animal populations and their regulation. In: Johnson ML, Abercrombie M, Fogg GE (eds) New biology, vol 15., Penguin Books, London, pp 9–24Google Scholar
  80. Hanski I (1990) Density dependence, regulation and variability in animal populations. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 330:141–150Google Scholar
  81. Hanski I, Woiwod IP, Perry J (1993) Density dependence, population persistence, and largely futile arguments. Oecologia 95:595–598Google Scholar
  82. Hanson HC, Needham JG, Taylor WP, Vestal AG, Allen WE (1931) Ecological nomenclature. Science 74:648–649Google Scholar
  83. Harper JL (1974) A centenary in population biology. Nature 252:526–527Google Scholar
  84. Harper JL (1977) Population biology of plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  85. Harrison XA, Blount JD, Inger R, Norris DR, Bearhop S (2011) Carry-over effects as drivers of fitness differences in animals. J Anim Ecol 80:4–18Google Scholar
  86. Hassell MP (1986) Detecting density dependence. Trends Ecol Evol 1:90–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hassell MP, Lawton JH, May RM (1976) Patterns of dynamical behaviour in single-species populations. J Anim Ecol 45:471–486Google Scholar
  88. Hastings A (2009) Biological chaos and complex dynamics. In: Levin SA (ed) The Princeton guide to ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 172–176Google Scholar
  89. Heino M, Dieckman U (2008) Evolution and sustainability of harvested populations. In: Carroll SP, Fox CW (eds) Conservation biology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 308–323Google Scholar
  90. Henle K, Sarre S, Wiegand K (2004) The role of density regulation in extinction processes and population viability analysis. Biodivers Conserv 13:9–52Google Scholar
  91. Herrando-Pérez S, Delean S, Brook BW, Bradshaw CJA (2012) Decoupling of component and ensemble density feedbacks in birds and mammals. Ecology.
  92. Hixon MA, Pacala SW, Sandin SA (2002) Population regulation: historical context and contemporary challenges of open vs. closed systems. Ecology 83:1490–1508Google Scholar
  93. Hodges KE (2008) Defining the problem: terminology and progress in ecology. Front Ecol Environ 6:35–42Google Scholar
  94. Hofstetter RW, Cronin JT, Klepzig KD, Moser JC, Ayres MP (2006) Antagonisms, mutualisms and commensalisms affect outbreak dynamics of the southern pine beetle. Oecologia 147:679–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Holt RD (2009) Bringing the hutchinsonian niche into the 21st century: ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:19659–19665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Holyoak M, Lawton JH (1992) Detection of density dependence from annual censuses of bracken-feeding insects. Oecologia 91:425–430Google Scholar
  97. Howard LO, Fiske WF (1911) The importation into the United States of the parasites of the gipsy moth and the brown-tail moth. US Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  98. Hunter MD (1998) Interactions between Operophtera brumata and Tortrix viridana on oak: new evidence from time-series analysis. Ecol Entomol 23:168–173Google Scholar
  99. Ives AR, Abbott KC, Ziebarth NL (2010) Analysis of ecological time series with ARMA (p, q) models. Ecology 91:858–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Jennings S (2000) Patterns and prediction of population recovery in marine reserves. Rev Fish Biol Fish 10:209–231Google Scholar
  101. Johnson WH (1933) Effects of population density on the rate of reproduction in Oxytricha. Physiol Zool 6:22–54Google Scholar
  102. Johnson DH, Shaffer TL, Newton WE (2001) Statistics for wildlifers: how much and what kind? Wildl Soc Bull 29:1055–1060Google Scholar
  103. Kingsland SE (1995) Modeling nature, 2nd edn. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  104. Kingsland SE (1996) Evolutionary theory and the foundations of population ecology: the work of A. J. Nicholson (1895–1969). In: Floyd RB, Sheppard AW, de Barro PJ (eds) Frontiers of population ecology. CSIRO, Collingwood, pp 13–25Google Scholar
  105. Kokko H, López-Sepulcre A (2007) The ecogenetic link between demography and evolution: can we bridge the gap between theory and data? Ecol Lett 10:773–782Google Scholar
  106. Kolb A, Dahlgren JP, Ehrlén J (2010) Population size affects vital rates but not population growth rate of a perennial plant. Ecology 91:3210–3217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kramer A, Dennis B, Liebhold A, Drake J (2009) The evidence for Allee effects. Popul Ecol 51:341–354Google Scholar
  108. Krebs CJ (1995) Two paradigms of population regulation. Wildl Res 22:1–10Google Scholar
  109. Krebs CJ (2002a) Beyond population regulation and limitation. Wildl Res 29:1–10Google Scholar
  110. Krebs CJ (2002b) Two complementary paradigms for analysing population dynamics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 357:1211–1219Google Scholar
  111. Lande R, Engen S, Saether BE, Filli F, Matthysen E, Weimerskirch H (2002) Estimating density dependence from population time series using demographic theory and life-history data. Am Nat 159:321–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Liermann M, Hilborn R (1997) Depensation in fish stocks: a hierarchic bayesian meta-analysis. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54:1976–1984Google Scholar
  113. Lima M, Julliard R, Stenseth NC, Jaksic FM (2001) Demographic dynamics of a neotropical small rodent (Phyllotis darwini): feedback structure, predation and climatic factors. J Anim Ecol 70:761–775Google Scholar
  114. Ludwig D, Mangel M, Haddad B (2001) Ecology, conservation, and public policy. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 32:481–517Google Scholar
  115. Lysenko TD (1954) Agrobiology. Foreing Languages Publishing House, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  116. Malthus TR (1798) An essay on the principle of population as it affects the future improvement of society. Johnson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  117. Manier E (1970) Functionalism and the negative feedback model in biology. Proc Biennial Meet Philos Sci Assoc 1970:225–240Google Scholar
  118. Margolis L, Esch GW, Holmes JC, Kuris AM, Schad GA (1982) The use of ecological terms in parasitology. J Parasitol 68:131–133Google Scholar
  119. May RM (1972) Limit cycles in predator-prey communities. Science 177:900–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. May RM (1974) Biological populations with nonoverlapping generations: stable points, stable cycles, and chaos. Science 186:645–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. May RM (1976) Simple mathematical models with very complicated dynamics. Nature 261:459–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. May RM (1989) Detecting density dependence in imaginary worlds. Nature 338:16–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. May RM (1999) Unanswered questions in ecology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 354:1951–1959Google Scholar
  124. May RM, Conway GR, Hassell MP, Southwood TRE (1974) Time delays, density-dependence and single-species oscillations. J Anim Ecol 43:747–770Google Scholar
  125. McCarthy MA (1997) The allee effect, finding mates and theoretical models. Ecol Model 103:99–102Google Scholar
  126. McCarthy-Neumann S, Kobe RK (2008) Tolerance of soil pathogens co-varies with shade tolerance across species of tropical tree seedlings. Ecology 89:1883–1892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Medawar PB (1940) The growth, growth energy, and ageing of the chicken’s heart. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 129:332–355Google Scholar
  128. Milne A (1962) On a theory of natural control of insect population. J Theor Biol 3:19–50Google Scholar
  129. Milne A, Solomon ME (1958) Perfect and imperfect density dependence in population dynamics. Nature 182:1251–1252Google Scholar
  130. Milsum JH (1966) Biological control systems analysis. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  131. Moran P (1953) The statistical snalsis of the Canadian lynx cycle. 1. Structure and prediction. Aust J Zool 1:163–173Google Scholar
  132. Mühlhäusler P (2003) Language of environment, environment of language : a course in ecolinguistics. Battle Bridge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  133. Mullon C, Freon P, Cury P (2005) The dynamics of collapse in world fisheries. Fish Fish 6:111–120Google Scholar
  134. Murdoch WW (1970) Population regulation and population inertia. Ecology 51:497–502Google Scholar
  135. Murdoch WW (1994) Population regulation in theory and practice. Ecology 75:271–287Google Scholar
  136. Murdoch WW, Walde SJ (1989) Analysis of insect population dynamics. In: Grubb PJ, Whittaker JB (eds) Toward a more exact ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 113–140Google Scholar
  137. Murphy DD, Noon BD (1991) Coping with uncertainty in wildlife biology. J Wildl Manag 55:773–782Google Scholar
  138. Murray BG (1982) On the meaning of density dependence. Oecologia 53:370–373Google Scholar
  139. Murray BG (2001) Are ecological and evolutionary theories scientific? Biol Rev 76:255–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Myers RA (2001) Stock and recruitment: generalizations about maximum reproductive rate, density dependence, and variability using meta-analytic approaches. ICES J Mar Sci: Journal du Conseil 58:937–951Google Scholar
  141. Myers RA, Barrowman NJ, Hutchings JA, Rosenberg AA (1995) Population dynamics of exploited fish stocks at low population levels. Science 269:1106–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Neave F (1953) Principles affecting the size of pink and chum salmon populations in British Columbia. J Fish Res Board Can 9:450–491Google Scholar
  143. Nelder JA (1961) The fitting of a generalization of the logistic curve. Biometrics 17:89–110Google Scholar
  144. Nicholson AJ (1933) The balance of animal populations. J Anim Ecol 2:132–178Google Scholar
  145. Nicholson AJ (1954a) Compensatory reactions of populations to stresses, and their evolutionary significance. Aust J Zool 2:1–8Google Scholar
  146. Nicholson AJ (1954b) An outline of the dynamics of animal populations. Aust J Zool 2:9–65Google Scholar
  147. Nicholson AJ (1958) The self-adjustment of populations to change. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Ecol 22:153–172Google Scholar
  148. Nicholson AJ (1959) Density-dependent factors in ecology. Nature 183:911–912Google Scholar
  149. Odum EP (1953) Fundamentals of ecology. W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  150. Odum EP (1963) Ecology. Holt, Rinehert and Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  151. Pearl R (1925) The biology of population growth. A. Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  152. Pech RP, Sinclair ARE, Newsome AE, Catling PC (1992) Limits to predator regulation of rabbits in Australia—evidence from predator-removal experiments. Oecologia 89:102–112Google Scholar
  153. Pimentel D (1961) Animal population regulation by the genetic feed-back mechanism. Am Nat 95:65–79Google Scholar
  154. Pimentel D (1968) Population regulation and genetic feedback. Science 159:1432–1437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Pistorius PA, Taylor FE, Bester MN, Hofmeyr GJG, Kirkman SP (2008) Evidence for density dependent population regulation in southern elephant seals in the southern Indian Ocean. Afr Zool 43:75–80Google Scholar
  156. Pollard E, Lakhani KH, Rothery P (1987) The detection of density-dependence from a series of annual censuses. Ecology 68:2046–2055Google Scholar
  157. Pöysä H, Pesonen M (2003) Density dependence, regulation and open-closed populations: insights from the wigeon, Anas penelope. Oikos 102:358–366Google Scholar
  158. Ratikainen II, Gill JA, Gunnarsson TG, Sutherland WJ, Kokko H (2008) When density dependence is not instantaneous: theoretical developments and management implications. Ecol Lett 11:184–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Reddingius J (1971) Gambling for existence. Acta Biotheor 12:1–208Google Scholar
  160. Reddingius J, den Boer PJ (1989) On the stabilization of animal numbers. Problems of testing. 1 power estimates and estimation errors. Oecologia 78:1–8Google Scholar
  161. Ricker WE (1954) Stock and recruitment. J Fish Res Board Can 11:559–623Google Scholar
  162. Ricker WE (1958) Handbook of computation for biological statistics of fish populations. Fish Res Board, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  163. Robertson TB (1924) The influence of washing upon the multiplication of isolated infusoria and upon allelocatalyctic effect in cultures initially containing two infusoria. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 1:151–173Google Scholar
  164. Rodenhouse NL, Sherry TW, Holmes RT (1997) Site-dependent regulation of population size: a new synthesis. Ecology 78:2025–2042Google Scholar
  165. Rose KA, Cowan JH, Winemiller KO, Myers RA, Hilborn R (2001) Compensatory density dependence in fish populations: importance, controversy, understanding and prognosis. Fish Fish 2:293–327Google Scholar
  166. Royama T (1977) Population persistence and density dependence. Ecol Monogr 47:1–35Google Scholar
  167. Royama T (1981) Fundamental concepts and methodology for the analysis of animal population dynamics, with particular reference to univoltine species. Ecol Monogr 51:473–493Google Scholar
  168. Sabo JL, Holmes EE, Kareiva P (2004) Efficacy of simple viability models in ecological risk assessment: does density dependence matter? Ecology 85:328–341Google Scholar
  169. Saitoh T, Cazelles B, Vik JO, Viljugrein H, Stenseth NC (2006) Effects of regime shifts on the population dynamics of the grey-sided vole in Hokkaido, Japan. Clim Res 32:109–118Google Scholar
  170. Sale PF, Tolimieri N (2000) Density dependence at some time and place? Oecologia 124:166–171Google Scholar
  171. Sandin SA, Pacala SW (2005) Fish aggregation results in inversely density-dependent predation on continuous coral reefs. Ecology 86:1520–1530Google Scholar
  172. Scheuring I (1999) Allee effect increases the dynamical stability of populations. J Theor Biol 199:407–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Shinozaki K, Kira T (1956) Intraspecific competition among higher plants. VII. Logistic theory of the C-D effect. J Inst Polytech Osaka City Ser D 7:3–72Google Scholar
  174. Sibly RM, Hone J (2002) Population growth rate and its determinants: an overview. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 357:1153–1170Google Scholar
  175. Sibly RM, Barker D, Denham MC, Hone J, Pagel M (2005) On the regulation of populations of mammals, birds, fish, and insects. Science 309:607–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Sinclair ARE (1989) Population regulation in animals. In: Cherret JM (ed) Ecological concepts: the contribution of ecology to an understanding of the natural world. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 197–241Google Scholar
  177. Sinclair ARE, Pech RP (1996) Density dependence, stochasticity, compensation and predator regulation. Oikos 75:164–173Google Scholar
  178. Slobodkin LB (1963) Growth and regulation of animal populations. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  179. Slobodkin LB (1968) Animal populations and ecologies. In: Milsum JH (ed) Positive feedback. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 149–166Google Scholar
  180. Slobodkin LB, Smith FE, Hairston NG (1967) Regulation in terrestrial ecosystems, and the implied balance of nature. Am Nat 101:109–124Google Scholar
  181. Smith SH (1935) The role of biotic factors in the determination of population densities. J Econ Entomol 28:873–898Google Scholar
  182. Solomon ME (1949) The natural control of animal populations. J Anim Ecol 18:1–35Google Scholar
  183. Solomon ME (1958) Meaning of density-dependence and related terms in population dynamics. Nature 181:1778–1780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Solomon ME (1976) Population dynamics. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  185. Stephens PA, Sutherland WJ (1999) Consequences of the Allee effect for behaviour, ecology and conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 14:401–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Stephens PA, Sutherland WJ, Freckleton RP (1999) What is the Allee effect? Oikos 87:185–190Google Scholar
  187. Strong DR (1986) Density-vague population change. Trends Ecol Evol 1:39–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Tanner JT (1966) Effects of population density on growth rates of animal populations. Ecology 47:733–745Google Scholar
  189. Tavecchia G, Pradel R, Genovart M, Oro D (2007) Density-dependent parameters and demographic equilibrium in open populations. Oikos 116:1481–1492Google Scholar
  190. Thompson WR (1928) A contribution to the study of biological control and parasite introduction in continental areas. Parasitology 20:90–112Google Scholar
  191. Tobin PC, Berec L, Liebhold AM (2011) Exploiting Allee effects for managing biological invasions. Ecol Lett 14:615–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Todd PA, Ladle RJ (2008) Citations: poor practices by authors reduce their value. Nature 451:244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Todd PA, Yeo DCJ, Li D, Ladle RJ (2007) Citing practices in ecology: can we believe our own words? Oikos 116:1599–1601Google Scholar
  194. Turchin P (1990) Rarity of density dependence or population regulation with lags? Nature 344:660–663Google Scholar
  195. Turchin P (1995) Population regulation: old arguments and a new synthesis. In: Cappuccino N, Price P (eds) Population dynamics: new approaches and synthesis. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 19–40Google Scholar
  196. van Oosten J (1928) Life history of the lake herring (Leucichthys artedi Le Sueur) of Lake Huron as revealed by its scales, with a critique of the scale method. Bull Bureau Fish 44:267–428Google Scholar
  197. Varley GC (1947) The natural control of population balance in the knapweed gall-fly (Urophora jaceana). J Anim Ecol 16:139–187Google Scholar
  198. Varley GC (1958) Meaning of density-dependence and related terms in population dynamics. Nature 181:1780–1781Google Scholar
  199. Varley GC (1959) Density-dependent factors in ecology. Nature 183:911Google Scholar
  200. Varley GC (1963) The interpretation of change and stability in insect populations. Proc Ceylon Assoc Adv Sci 18:142–156Google Scholar
  201. Varley GC, Gradwell GR (1970) Recent advances in insect population dynamics. Annu Rev Entomol 15:1–24Google Scholar
  202. Varley GC, Gradwell GR, Hassell MP (1973) Insect population ecology. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  203. Verhulst PR (1838) Notice sur la loi que la population poursuit dans son accroissement. Correspondance Math Physique 10:113–121Google Scholar
  204. Volkov I, Banavar JR, He F, Hubbell SP, Maritan A (2005) Density dependence explains tree species abundance and diversity in tropical forests. Nature 438:658–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. von Bertalanffy L (1968) General systems theory. Penguin Books, MiddlesexGoogle Scholar
  206. von Nägeli KW (1874) Verdrängung der pflanzenformen durch ihre mitbewerber. Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Munchen 11:109–164Google Scholar
  207. Voûte A (1943) Classification of factors influencing the natural growth of a population of insects. Acta Biotheor 7:99–116Google Scholar
  208. Wallin IE (1923) Symbionticism and prototaxis. Two fundamental biological principles. Anat Rec 26:65–73Google Scholar
  209. Wallin KF, Raffa KF (2004) Feedback between individual host selection behavior and population dynamics in an eruptive herbivore. Ecol Monogr 74:101–116Google Scholar
  210. Walters CJ, Hilborn R, Christensen V (2008) Surplus production dynamics in declining and recovering fish populations. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:2536–2551Google Scholar
  211. Warming E (1909) Oecology of plants. Claredon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  212. Watson A, Moss R, Rae S (1998) Population dynamics of Scottish rock ptarmigan cycles. Ecology 79:1174–1192Google Scholar
  213. Weber JR, Word CS (2001) The communication process as evaluative context: what do nonscientists hear when scientists speak? Bioscience 51:487–495Google Scholar
  214. Wheeler WM (1918) A study of some ant larvae, with a consideration of the origin and meaning of the social habit among insects. Proc Am Philos Soc 57:293–343Google Scholar
  215. White TCR (2001) Opposing paradigms: regulation or limitation of populations? Oikos 93:148–152Google Scholar
  216. White TCR (2008) The role of food, weather and climate in limiting the abundance of animals. Biol Rev 83:227–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Whittaker JB (1957) Two ecological glossaries and a proposal on nomenclature. Ecology 38:371Google Scholar
  218. Wiener N (1948) Cybernetics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  219. Williams CK, Collins BM (2008) Mortality. In: Jorgensen SE, Fath B (eds) Encyclopedia of ecology. Academic Press, Oxford, pp 2449–2455Google Scholar
  220. Williams CK, Ives AR, Applegate RD, Ripa J (2004) The collapse of cycles in the dynamics of North American grouse populations. Ecol Lett 7:1135–1142Google Scholar
  221. Wolda H (1989) The equilibrium concept and density dependence tests. Oecologia 81:430–432Google Scholar
  222. Wolda H (1995) The demise of the population regulation controversy? Res Popul Ecol 37:91–93Google Scholar
  223. Wolda H, Dennis B, Taper ML (1994) Density dependence tests, and largely futile comments: answers to Holyoak and Lawton (1993) and Hanski, Woiwod and Perry (1993). Oecologia 98:229–234Google Scholar
  224. Woodruff LL (1911) The effect of excretion products of Paramaecium on its rate of reproduction. J Exp Zool 10:557–581Google Scholar
  225. Wright SJ (2002) Plant diversity in tropical forests: a review of mechanisms of species coexistence. Oecologia 130:1–14Google Scholar
  226. Yapp RH (1925) The inter-relations of plants and the concept of “association”. Festschrift Carl Schröter, Geobotanisches Institut Stiftung Rübel 3:684–706Google Scholar
  227. Yoda K, Kira T, Ogawa H, Hozumi K (1963) Self-thinning in overcrowded pure stands under cultivated and natural conditions. J Biol Osaka City Univ 14:107–129Google Scholar
  228. Yoccoz NG, Stenseth NC, Henttonen H, Prévot-Julliard AC (2001) Effects of food addition on the seasonal density-dependent structure of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus populations. J Anim Ecol 70:713–720Google Scholar
  229. Ziebarth NL, Abbott KC, Ives AR (2010) Weak population regulation in ecological time series. Ecol Lett 13:21–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Zipkin EF, Sullivan PJ, Cooch EG, Kraft CE, Shuter BJ, Weidel BC (2008) Overcompensatory response of a smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) population to harvest: release from competition? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:2279–2292Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salvador Herrando-Pérez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Steven Delean
    • 1
  • Barry W. Brook
    • 1
  • Corey J. A. Bradshaw
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.The Environment Institute and School of Earth and Environmental SciencesThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.South Australian Research and Development InstituteHenley Beach, AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations