, Volume 163, Issue 4, pp 875–884 | Cite as

Oil pollution increases plasma antioxidants but reduces coloration in a seabird

  • Cristóbal Pérez
  • Marta Lores
  • Alberto Velando
Behavioral ecology - Original Paper


It has been suggested that condition-dependent signals may be a useful measure of environmental quality. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that oil pollution enhances oxidative stress and impairs expression of a carotenoid-based signal in a wild population of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). During the courtship period, a group of gulls were fed a supplementary diet containing heavy fuel oil from the Prestige oil spill and were compared with control gulls fed a similar supplementary diet without fuel oil. Blood levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the most toxic components of crude oils, were higher (30%) in the Prestige oil-fed gulls than in the control gulls. Plasma concentrations of vitamin E and carotenoids were also significantly higher in the Prestige oil-fed gulls (31 and 27%, respectively). Although, the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation markers were higher (13%) in gulls fed with Prestige oil than in the control gulls, these differences were not significant, possibly because of the small number of gulls analyzed. The red bill spot was significantly smaller (16%) in the oil-fed gulls than in the control individuals. This study provides the first experimental evidence that a carotenoid-based signal in a free-living seabird is affected by exposure to oil pollution and is hence indicative of environmental quality. Since the yellow-legged gull belongs to a complex of species widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, the method described may constitute a useful tool for evaluating sub-lethal effects of oil spills in seabirds.


Bioindicator Larus michahellis Oil pollution Oxidative stress Sexual selection 



We are grateful to the staff at the Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestres de las Islas Atlánticas de Galicia and Naviera Mar de Ons, for logistic support, and Carmen Díez and Julio Eiroa for help in the fieldwork. We also want thank to Carlos Alonso Álvarez, Esa Lehikoinen and two anonymous referees for their constructive comments that clearly improved this manuscript. The present study was funded by the by the Spanish Ministerio de Educacíon y Ciencia (CGL2006-11928). Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestre de las Islas Atlánticas de Galicia gave working permissions and approved the experiment.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristóbal Pérez
    • 1
  • Marta Lores
    • 2
  • Alberto Velando
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Ecoloxía e Bioloxía Animal, Facultade de BioloxíaUniversidade de VigoVigoSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Química Analítica, Nutrición e Bromatoloxía, Facultade de Química, Instituto de Investigacións e Análises AlimentariosUniversidade de Santiago de CompostelaSantiago de CompostelaSpain

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