Oecologia

, Volume 163, Issue 1, pp 13–24

Immobilizing nitrogen to control plant invasion

  • Laura G. Perry
  • Dana M. Blumenthal
  • Thomas A. Monaco
  • Mark W. Paschke
  • Edward F. Redente
Concepts, Reviews, and Syntheses

Abstract

Increased soil N availability may often facilitate plant invasions. Therefore, lowering N availability might reduce these invasions and favor desired species. Here, we review the potential efficacy of several commonly proposed management approaches for lowering N availability to control invasion, including soil C addition, burning, grazing, topsoil removal, and biomass removal, as well as a less frequently proposed management approach for lowering N availability, establishment of plant species adapted to low N availability. We conclude that many of these approaches may be promising for lowering N availability by stimulating N immobilization, even though most are generally ineffective for removing N from ecosystems (excepting topsoil removal). C addition and topsoil removal are the most reliable approaches for lowering N availability, and often favor desired species over invasive species, but are too expensive or destructive, respectively, for most management applications. Less intensive approaches, such as establishing low-N plant species, burning, grazing and biomass removal, are less expensive than C addition and may lower N availability if they favor plant species that are adapted to low N availability, produce high C:N tissue, and thus stimulate N immobilization. Regardless of the method used, lowering N availability sufficiently to reduce invasion will be difficult, particularly in sites with high atmospheric N deposition or agricultural runoff. Therefore, where feasible, the disturbances that result in high N availability should be limited in order to reduce invasions by nitrophilic weeds.

Keywords

Carbon addition Ecological restoration Fire Grazing Plant–soil feedbacks 

References

  1. Aerts R, Chapin FS (2000) The mineral nutrition of wild plants revisited: a re-evaluation of processes and patterns. Adv Ecol Res 30:1–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aerts R, Berendse F, de Caluwe H, Schmitz M (1990) Competition in heathland along an experimental gradient of nutrient availability. Oikos 57:310–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison M, Ausden M (2004) Successful use of topsoil removal and soil amelioration to create heathland vegetation. Biol Conserv 120:221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison SD, Vitousek PM (2004) Rapid nutrient cycling in leaf litter from invasive plants in Hawai’i. Oecologia 141:612–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alpert P, Maron JL (2000) Carbon addition as a countermeasure against biological invasion by plants. Biol Invasions 2:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson VJ, Briske DD (1995) Herbivore-induced species replacement in grasslands—is it driven by herbivory tolerance or avoidance. Ecol Appl 5:1014–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Augustine DJ (2003) Long-term, livestock-mediated redistribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in an East African savanna. J Appl Ecol 40:137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Augustine DJ, McNaughton SJ (1998) Ungulate effects on the functional species composition of plant communities: herbivore selectivity and plant tolerance. J Wildl Manage 62:1165–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Averett JM, Klips RA, Nave LE, Frey SD, Curtis PS (2004) Effects of soil carbon amendment on nitrogen availability and plant growth in an experimental tallgrass prairie restoration. Restor Ecol 12:568–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baer SG, Blair JM, Collins SL, Knapp AK (2003) Soil resources regulate productivity and diversity in newly established tallgrass prairie. Ecology 84:724–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bakker JP, Elzinga JA, de Vries Y (2002) Effects of long-term cutting in a grassland system: perspectives for restoration of plant communities on nutrient-poor soils. Appl Veg Sci 5:107–120Google Scholar
  12. Bakker C, de Graaf HF, Ernst WHO, van Bodegom PM (2005) Does the seed bank contribute to the restoration of species-rich vegetation in wet dune slacks? Appl Veg Sci 8:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bardgett RD, Wardle DA (2003) Herbivore-mediated linkages between aboveground and belowground communities. Ecology 84:2258–2268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bazzaz FA (1996) Plants in changing environments. Linking physiological, population, and community ecology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  15. Berendse F (1998) Effects of dominant plant species on soils during succession in nutrient-poor ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 42:73–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berendse F, Oomes MJM, Altena HJ, Elberse WT (1992) Experiments on the restoration of species-rich meadows in the Netherlands. Biol Conserv 62:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blair JM (1997) Fire, N availability, and plant response in grasslands: a test of the transient maxima hypothesis. Ecology 78:2359–2368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bleier JS, Jackson RD (2007) Manipulating the quantity, quality, and manner of C addition to reduce soil inorganic N and increase C4:C3 grass biomass. Restor Ecol 15:688–695Google Scholar
  19. Blumenthal DM (2009) Carbon addition interacts with water availability to reduce invasive forb establishment in a semi-arid grassland. Biol Invasions 11:1281–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blumenthal DM, Jordan NR, Russelle MP (2003) Soil carbon addition controls weeds and facilitates prairie restoration. Ecol Appl 13:605–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blumenthal DM, Jordan NR, Svenson EL (2005) Effects of prairie restoration on weed invasions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blumenthal DN, Norton U, Derner JD, Reeder JD (2006) Long-term effects of tebuthiuron on Bromus tectorum. West N Am Nat 66:420–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bobbink R, Willems JH (1991) Impact of different cutting regimes on the performance of Brachypodium pinnatum in Dutch chalk grasslands. Biol Conserv 56:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bobbink R, Hornung M, Roelofs JGM (1998) The effects of air-borne nitrogen pollutants on species diversity in natural and semi-natural European vegetation. J Ecol 86:717–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bonanomi G, Caporaso S, Allegrezza M (2006) Short-term effects of nitrogen enrichment, litter removal and cutting on a Mediterranean grassland. Acta Oecol Int J Ecol 30:419–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brandon AL, Gibson DJ, Middleton BA (2004) Mechanisms for dominance in an early successional old field by the invasive non-native Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don. Biol Invasions 6:483–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brown JR, Stuth JW (1993) How herbivory affects grazing tolerant and sensitive grasses in a central Texas grassland—integrating plant-response across hierarchical levels. Oikos 67:291–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brudvig LA, Mabry CM, Miller JR, Walker TA (2007) Evaluation of central north American prairie management based on species diversity, life form, and individual species metrics. Conserv Biol 21:864–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Buisson E, Anderson S, Holl KD, Corcket E, Hayes GF, Peeters A, Dutoit T (2008) Reintroduction of Nassella pulchra to California coastal grasslands: effects of topsoil removal, plant neighbour removal and grazing. Appl Veg Sci 11:195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cabrera ML, Kissel DE, Vigil MF (2005) Nitrogen mineralization from organic residues: research opportunities. J Environ Qual 34:75–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carpenter SR, Caraco NF, Correll DL, Howarth RW, Sharpley AN, Smith VH (1998) Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol Appl 8:559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Carson WP, Barrett GW (1988) Succession in old-field plant communities—effects of contrasting types of nutrient enrichment. Ecology 69:984–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cassidy TM, Fownes JH, Harrington RA (2004) Nitrogen limits an invasive perennial shrub in forest understory. Biol Invasions 6:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chapin FS (1980) The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 11:233–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Choi YD, Pavlovic NB (1998) Experimental restoration of native vegetation in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Restor Ecol 6:118–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cione NK, Padgett PE, Allen EB (2002) Restoration of a native shrubland impacted by exotic grasses, frequent fire, and nitrogen deposition in southern California. Restor Ecol 10:376–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Corbin JD, D’Antonio CM (2004a) Can carbon addition increase competitiveness of native grasses? A case study from California. Restor Ecol 12:36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Corbin JD, D’Antonio CM (2004b) Effects of exotic species on soil nitrogen cycling: implications for restoration. Weed Technol 18:1464–1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Corbin JD, Dyer AR, Seabloom EW (2007) Competitive interactions. In: Stromberg MR, Corbin JD, D’Antonio CM (eds) California grasslands: ecology and management. University of California, Berkeley, pp 156–168Google Scholar
  40. Cornelissen JHC, Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Díaz S, Grime JP, Marzano B, Cabido M, Vendramini F, Cerabolini B (1999) Leaf structure and defence control litter decomposition rate across species and life forms in regional floras on two continents. New Phytol 143:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Daehler CC (2003) Performance comparisons of co-occurring native and alien invasive plants: implications for conservation and restoration. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:183–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davis MA, Grime JP, Thompson K (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J Ecol 88:528–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. DeLuca TH, Sala A (2006) Frequent fire alters nitrogen transformations in ponderosa pine stands of the inland northwest. Ecology 87:2511–2522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. DeLuca TH, Nilsson MC, Zackrisson O (2002) Nitrogen mineralization and phenol accumulation along a fire chronosequence in northern Sweden. Oecologia 133:206–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dijkstra FA, Wrage K, Hobbie SE, Reich PB (2006) Tree patches show greater N losses but maintain higher soil N availability than grassland patches in a frequently burned oak savanna. Ecosystems 9:441–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. DiTomaso JM, Brooks ML, Allen EB, Minnich R, Rice PM, Kyser GB (2006) Control of invasive weeds with prescribed burning. Weed Technol 20:535–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ehrenfeld JG (2003) Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems 6:503–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Eschen R, Müller-Scharer H, Schaffner U (2006) Soil carbon addition affects plant growth in a species-specific way. J Appl Ecol 43:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eschen R, Mortimer SR, Lawson CS, Edwards AR, Brook AJ, Igual JM, Hedlund K, Schaffner U (2007) Carbon addition alters vegetation composition on ex-arable fields. J Appl Ecol 44:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Evans RD, Rimer R, Sperry L, Belnap J (2001) Exotic plant invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an arid grassland. Ecol Appl 11:1301–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Frank DA, Groffman PM (1998) Ungulate vs. landscape control of soil C and N processes in grasslands of Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 79:2229–2241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Funk JL, Vitousek PM (2007) Resource-use efficiency and plant invasion in low-resource systems. Nature 446:1079–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fynn RWS, Haynes RJ, O’Connor TG (2003) Burning causes long-term changes in soil organic matter content of a South African grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 35:677–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Galloway JN, Schlesinger WH, Levy H, Michaels A, Schnoor JL (1995) Nitrogen fixation—anthropogenic enhancement—environmental response. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 9:235–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gendron F, Wilson SD (2007) Responses to fertility and disturbance in a low-diversity grassland. Plant Ecol 191:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grime JP, Cornelissen JHC, Thompson K, Hodgson JG (1996) Evidence of a causal connection between anti-herbivore defence and the decomposition rate of leaves. Oikos 77:484–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Halassy M, Török K (2004) Combination of treatments to restore native sand grassland species to black locust plantations (Hungary). Ecol Restor 22:217–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Halassy M, Török K (1997) First year experiences in the restoration of sandy grasslands at clear-cut forest sites in the Kiskunsag National Park. In: Tóth E, Horváth R (eds) Proceedings of the Research, Conservation, Management Conference, Aggtelek, Hungary, pp 213–222Google Scholar
  59. Hardtle W, Niemeyer M, Niemeyer T, Assmann T, Fottner S (2006) Can management compensate for atmospheric nutrient deposition in heathland ecosystems? J Appl Ecol 43:759–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Haubensak KA (2001) Invasion and impacts of nitrogen-fixing shrubs Genista monspessulana and Cytisus scoparius in grasslands of Washington and coastal California. PhD dissertation, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  61. Hobbie SE (1992) Effects of plant species on nutrient cycling. Trends Ecol Evol 7:336–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Holland EA, Braswell BH, Sulzman J, Lamarque JF (2005) Nitrogen deposition onto the United States and Western Europe: synthesis of observations and models. Ecol Appl 15:38–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Horn BE, Redente EF (1998) Soil nitrogen and plant cover of an old-field on the shortgrass steppe in southeastern Colorado. Arid Soil Res Rehabil 12:193–206Google Scholar
  64. Huddleston RT, Young TP (2005) Weed control and soil amendment effects on restoration plantings in an Oregon grassland. West N Am Nat 65:507–515Google Scholar
  65. Iannone BV, Galatowitsch SM, Rosen CJ (2008) Evaluation of resource-limiting strategies intended to prevent Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) invasions in restored sedge meadows. Ecoscience 15:508–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Inouye RS, Tilman D (1995) Convergence and divergence of old-field vegetation after 11 yr of nitrogen addition. Ecology 76:1872–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ishii T, Kadoya K (1993) Phytotoxic constituents in the bark and sawdust extracts of Chamaecyparis obtusa and Cryptomeria japonica and their effects on the growth of seedlings of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 62:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Johnson LC, Matchett JR (2001) Fire and grazing regulate belowground processes in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 82:3377–3389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jones GH (1993) Factors controlling the establishment of species-rich grasslands in urban landscape schemes. PhD dissertation, University of Wolverhampton, WolverhamptonGoogle Scholar
  70. Jones DL, Hodge A, Kuzyakov Y (2004) Plant and mycorrhizal regulation of rhizodeposition. New Phytol 163:459–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kalmbacher R, Martin F (1996) Shifts in botanical composition of flatwoods range following fertilization. J Range Manage 49:530–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kardol P, van der Wal A, Bezemer TM, de Boer W, Duyts H, Holtkamp R, van der Putten WH (2008) Restoration of species-rich grasslands on ex-arable land: seed addition outweighs soil fertility reduction. Biol Conserv 141:2208–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Klein DA, McLendon T, Paschke MW, Redente EF (1996) Nitrogen availability and fungal-bacterial responses in successional semiarid steppe soils. Arid Soil Res Rehabil 10:321–332Google Scholar
  74. Knapp PA (1996) Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominance in the Great Basin Desert—history, persistence, and influences to human activities. Glob Environ Change-Human Policy Dimens 6:37–52Google Scholar
  75. Kumar K, Rosen CJ, Gupta SC, McNearney M (2009) Land application of sugar beet by-products: effects on nitrogen mineralization and crop yields. J Environ Qual 38:319–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lauenroth W, Milchunas D (1991) Short-grass steppe. In: Coupland RT (ed) Ecosystems of the world 8A. Natural grasslands: introduction and western hemisphere. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 183–226Google Scholar
  77. LeBauer DS, Treseder KK (2008) Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed. Ecology 89:371–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Leishman MR, Haslehurst T, Ares A, Baruch Z (2007) Leaf trait relationships of native and invasive plants: community- and global-scale comparisons. New Phytol 176:635–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liao CZ, Peng RH, Luo YQ, Zhou XH, Wu XW, Fang CM, Chen JK, Li B (2008) Altered ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles by plant invasion: a meta-analysis. New Phytol 177:706–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lunt ID, Eldridge DJ, Morgan JW, Witt GB (2007) A framework to predict the effects of livestock grazing and grazing exclusion on conservation values in natural ecosystems in Australia. Aust J Bot 55:401–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mack MC, D’Antonio CM, Ley RE (2001) Alteration of ecosystem nitrogen dynamics by exotic plants: a case study of C-4 grasses in Hawaii. Ecol Appl 11:1323–1335Google Scholar
  82. Mangold JM, Sheley RL (2008) Controlling performance of bluebunch wheatgrass and spotted knapweed using nitrogen and sucrose amendments. West N Am Nat 68:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marion GM, Miller PC, Kummerow J, Oechel WC (1982) Competition for nitrogen in a tussock tundra ecosystem. Plant Soil 66:317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Maron JL, Jeffries RL (2001) Restoring enriched grasslands: effects of mowing on species richness, productivity, and nitrogen retention. Ecol Appl 11:1088–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Marrs RH (1993) Soil fertility and nature conservation in Europe—theoretical considerations and practical management solutions. Adv Ecol Res 24:241–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Marrs RH, Snow CSR, Owen KM, Evans CE (1998) Heathland and acid grassland creation on arable soils at Minsmere: identification of potential problems and a test of cropping to impoverish soils. Biol Conserv 85:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McCrea AR, Trueman IC, Fullen MA (2001) A comparison of the effects of four arable crops on the fertility depletion of a sandy silt loam destined for grassland habitat creation. Biol Conserv 97:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. McLauchlan KK, Hobbie SE, Post WM (2006) Conversion from agriculture to grassland builds soil organic matter on decadal timescales. Ecol Appl 16:143–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McLendon T, Redente EF (1990) Succession patterns following soil disturbance in a sagebrush steppe community. Oecologia 85:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McLendon T, Redente EF (1992) Effects of nitrogen limitation on species replacement dynamics during early secondary succession on a semiarid sagebrush site. Oecologia 91:312–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McLendon T, Redente EF (1994) Role of nitrogen availability in the transition from annual-dominated to perennial-dominated seral communities. In: Monsen SB, Kitchen SG (eds) Proceedings—ecology, management, and restoration of intermountain annual rangelands. General technical report INT-GTR-313. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah, pp 352–362Google Scholar
  92. McNaughton SJ, Banyikwa FF, McNaughton MM (1997) Promotion of the cycling of diet-enhancing nutrients by African grazers. Science 278:1798–1800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Michelsen A, Graglia E, Schmidt IK, Jonasson S, Sleep D, Quarmby C (1999) Differential responses of grass and a dwarf shrub to long-term changes in soil microbial biomass C, N and P following factorial addition of NPK fertilizer, fungicide and labile carbon to a heath. New Phytol 143:523–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Milchunas DG, Lauenroth WK (1995) Inertia in plant community structure—state changes after cessation of nutrient-enrichment stress. Ecol Appl 5:452–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mitchell RJ, Auld MHD, Hughes JM, Marrs RH (2000) Estimates of nutrient removal during heathland restoration on successional sites in Dorset, southern England. Biol Conserv 95:233–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Monaco TA, Johnson DA, Norton JM, Jones TA, Connors KJ, Norton JB, Redinbaugh MB (2003) Contrasting responses of intermountain west grasses to soil nitrogen. J Range Manage 56:282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Monaco TA, Norton JB, Johnson DA, Jones TA, Norton JM (2004) Soil nitrogen controls on grass seedling tiller recruitment. In: Hild AL, Shaw NL, Meyer SE, Booth DT, McArthur ED (eds) Seed and soil dynamics in shrubland ecosystems. Proceedings RMRS-P-31; 2002 August 12–16; Laramie, WY. USDA, USFS, RMRS, Ogden, Utah, USAGoogle Scholar
  98. Morghan KJR, Seastedt TR (1999) Effects of soil nitrogen reduction on nonnative plants in restored grasslands. Restor Ecol 7:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mouissie AM, Vos P, Verhagen HMC, Bakker JP (2005) Endozoochory by free-ranging, large herbivores: ecological correlates and perspectives for restoration. Basic Appl Ecol 6:547–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Norton JB, Monaco TA, Norton U (2007) Mediterranean annual grasses in western North America: kids in a candy store. Plant Soil 298:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Oakley BB, North MP, Franklin JF (2003) The effects of fire on soil nitrogen associated with patches of the actinorhizal shrub Ceanothus cordulatus. Plant Soil 254:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ojima DS, Schimel DS, Parton WJ, Owensby CE (1994) Long-term and short-term effects of fire on nitrogen cycling in tallgrass prairie. Biogeochemistry 24:67–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Oomes MJM, Olff H, Altena HJ (1996) Effects of vegetation management and raising the water table on nutrient dynamics and vegetation change in a wet grassland. J Appl Ecol 33:576–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Paschke MW, McLendon T, Redente EF (2000) Nitrogen availability and old-field succession in a shortgrass steppe. Ecosystems 3:144–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pastor J, Cohen Y, Hobbs NT (2006) The roles of large herbivores in ecosystem nutrient cycles. In: Danell K, Bergstrom R, Duncan P, Pastor J (eds) Large herbivore ecology, ecosystem dynamics and conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 289–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Díaz S, Vendramini F, Cornelissen JHC, Gurvich DE, Cabido M (2003) Leaf traits and herbivore selection in the field and in cafeteria experiments. Austral Ecol 28:642–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Perry LG, Galatowitsch SM, Rosen CJ (2004) Competitive control of invasive vegetation: a native wetland sedge suppresses Phalaris arundinacea in carbon-enriched soil. J Appl Ecol 41:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Prober SM, Lunt ID (2009) Restoration of Themeda australis swards suppresses soil nitrate and enhances ecological resistance to invasion by exotic annuals. Biol Invasions 11:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Prober SM, Thiele KR, Lunt ID, Koen TB (2005) Restoring ecological function in temperate grassy woodlands: manipulating soil nutrients, exotic annuals and native perennial grasses through carbon supplements and spring burns. J Appl Ecol 42:1073–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Prober SM, Lunt ID, Morgan JW (2009) Rapid internal plant-soil feedbacks lead to alternative stable states in temperate Australian grassy woodlands. In: Hobbs RJ, Suding KN (eds) New models for ecosystem dynamics and restoration. Island Press, Washington, pp 156–168Google Scholar
  111. Pysek P, Richardson DM (2007) Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: where do we stand? In: Nentwig W (ed) Ecological studies, vol 193. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–125Google Scholar
  112. Risser PG, Parton WJ (1982) Ecosystem analysis of the tallgrass prairie—nitrogen-cycle. Ecology 63:1342–1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ritchie ME, Tilman D, Knops JMH (1998) Herbivore effects on plant and nitrogen dynamics in oak savanna. Ecology 79:165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Roem WJ, Klees H, Berendse F (2002) Effects of nutrient addition and acidification on plant species diversity and seed germination in heathland. J Appl Ecol 39:937–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rogers BF, Krogmann U, Boyles LS (2001) Nitrogen mineralization rates of soils amended with nontraditional organic wastes. Soil Sci 166:353–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rowe HI, Brown CS, Paschke MW (2009) The influence of soil inoculum and nitrogen availability on restoration of high elevation steppe communities invaded by Bromus tectorum. Restor Ecol 17:686–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schlesinger WH (2009) On the fate of anthropogenic nitrogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:203–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schmidt IK, Michelsen A, Jonasson S (1997) Effects on plant production after addition of labile carbon to arctic/alpine soils. Oecologia 112:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schultz CB (2001) Restoring resources for an endangered butterfly. J Appl Ecol 38:1007–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Seabloom EW, Harpole WS, Reichman OJ, Tilman D (2003) Invasion, competitive dominance, and resource use by exotic and native California grassland species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:13384–13389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Seastedt TR, Suding KN (2007) Biotic constraints on the invasion of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) in North American grasslands. Oecologia 151:626–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Shea K, Chesson P (2002) Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 17:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shipley B, Keddy PA (1988) The relationship between relative growth rate and sensitivity to nutrient stress in 28 species of emergent macrophytes. J Ecol 76:1101–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sirotnak JM, Huntly NJ (2000) Direct and indirect effects of herbivores on nitrogen dynamics: voles in riparian areas. Ecology 81:78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Smallbone LT, Prober SM, Lunt ID (2007) Restoration treatments enhance early establishment of native forbs in a degraded temperate grassy woodland. Aust J Bot 55:818–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sperry LJ, Belnap J, Evans RD (2006) Bromus tectorum invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an undisturbed arid grassland ecosystem. Ecology 87:603–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stacy MD, Perryman BL, Stahl PD, Smith MA (2005) Brome control and microbial inoculation effects in reclaimed cool-season grasslands. Rangel Ecol Manage 58:161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stromberg JC, Beauchamp VB, Dixon MD, Lite SJ, Paradzick C (2007) Importance of low-flow and high-flow characteristics to restoration of riparian vegetation along rivers in and south-western United States. Freshwater Biol 52:651–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Suding KN, Gross KL, Houseman GR (2004a) Alternative states and positive feedbacks in restoration ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 19:46–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Suding KN, LeJeune KD, Seastedt TR (2004b) Competitive impacts and responses of an invasive weed: dependencies on nitrogen and phosphorus availability. Oecologia 141:526–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Suding KN, Collins SL, Gough L, Clark C, Cleland EE, Gross KL, Milchunas DG, Pennings S (2005) Functional- and abundance-based mechanisms explain biodiversity loss due to N fertilization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:4387–4392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tallowin JRB, Smith REN (2001) Restoration of a Cirsio-Molinietum fen meadow on an agriculturally improved pasture. Restor Ecol 9:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Thomsen MA, Corbin JD, D’Antonio CM (2006) The effect of soil nitrogen on competition between native and exotic perennial grasses from northern coastal California. Plant Ecol 186:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Tilman D (1990) Constraints and tradeoffs—toward a predictive theory of competition and succession. Oikos 58:3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tilman D, Wedin D (1991) Plant traits and resource reduction for 5 grasses growing on a nitrogen gradient. Ecology 72:685–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tix D, Hebberger JA, Charvat I (2006) Influence of aboveground biomass removal on nitrogen mineralization in a restored tallgrass prairie. Restor Ecol 14:561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Turner CL, Blair JM, Schartz RJ, Neel JC (1997) Soil N and plant responses to fire, topography, and supplemental N in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 78:1832–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ullah S, Faulkner SP (2006) Use of cotton gin trash to enhance denitrification in restored forested wetlands. For Ecol Manage 237:557–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. van den Berg LJL, Vergeer P, Roelofs JGM (2003) Heathland restoration in The Netherlands: effects of turf cutting depth on germination of Arnica montana. Appl Veg Sci 6:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. van der Wal R, Pearce I, Brooker R, Scott D, Welch D, Woodin S (2003) Interplay between nitrogen deposition and grazing causes habitat degradation. Ecol Lett 6:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. van Vuuren MMI, Aerts R, Berendse F, Devisser W (1992) Nitrogen mineralization in heathland ecosystems dominated by different plant species. Biogeochemistry 16:151–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Vangestel M, Ladd JN, Amato M (1992) Microbial biomass responses to seasonal change and imposed drying regimes at increasing depths of undisturbed topsoil profiles. Soil Biol Biochem 24:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Vergeer P, van den Berg LJL, Baar J, Ouborg NJ, Roelofs JGM (2006) The effect of turf cutting on plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal spore recolonisation: Implications for heathland restoration. Biol Conserv 129:226–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Vinton MA, Burke IC (1995) Interactions between individual plant species and soil nutrient status in shortgrass steppe. Ecology 76:1116–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Vinton MA, Goergen EM (2006) Plant-soil feedbacks contribute to the persistence of Bromus inermis in tallgrass prairie. Ecosystems 9:967–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Vitousek PM, Walker LR (1987) Colonization, succession and resource availability: ecosystem-level interactions. In: Crawley MJ, Edwards PJ, Gray AJ (eds) Colonization, succession and stability. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 207–222Google Scholar
  147. Wan SQ, Hui DF, Luo YQ (2001) Fire effects on nitrogen pools and dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Ecol Appl 11:1349–1365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wardle DA, Bardgett RD, Klironomos JN, Setala H, van der Putten WH, Wall DH (2004) Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota. Science 304:1629–1633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wedin DA, Tilman D (1990) Species effects on nitrogen cycling—a test with perennial grasses. Oecologia 84:433–441Google Scholar
  150. Young JA, Clements CD, Blank RR (1997) Influence of nitrogen on antelope bitterbrush seedling establishment. J Range Manage 50:536–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Young JA, Trent JD, Blank RR, Palmquist DE (1998) Nitrogen interactions with medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae ssp. asperum) seedbanks. Weed Sci 46:191–195Google Scholar
  152. Zink TA, Allen MF (1998) The effects of organic amendments on the restoration of a disturbed coastal sage scrub habitat. Restor Ecol 6:52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura G. Perry
    • 1
    • 5
  • Dana M. Blumenthal
    • 2
  • Thomas A. Monaco
    • 3
  • Mark W. Paschke
    • 4
  • Edward F. Redente
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of BiologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Rangeland Resources Research UnitUSDA-ARSFort CollinsUSA
  3. 3.Forage and Range Research LaboratoryUSDA-ARSLoganUSA
  4. 4.Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed StewardshipColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  5. 5.Fort Collins Science CenterFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations