, 157:177 | Cite as

Ecological consequences of the bold–shy continuum: the effect of predator boldness on prey risk

  • C. C. IoannouEmail author
  • M. Payne
  • J. Krause
Behavioral Ecology - Original Paper


Although the existence of different personality traits within and between animal populations has been relatively well established, the ecological implications of this variation remain neglected. In this study we tested whether differences in the boldness of pairs of three-spined sticklebacks led to differential predation risk in their prey, Chironomidae larvae. Bolder pairs, those that left a refuge and crossed the tank mid-line sooner, ate a greater proportion of prey in 10 min than less bold fish (therefore prey were at a greater per capita risk). Fish crossed the mid-line more rapidly when a larger number of prey were presented, suggesting they accepted greater risk in return for a larger foraging reward. Perception of predation risk also affected the differences between fish in boldness, as larger fish crossed the mid-line sooner after leaving the refuge (larger fish are less at risk from predation). Hence, an interesting trophic interaction occurs, where the risk experienced by the chironomid larvae is determined by the risk perceived by their predators. Through the variation generated by boldness, a form of behaviourally mediated trophic cascade can occur within (as well as between) communities.


Personality Predation risk Three-spined stickleback Trophic cascade 



Thanks to Amy Wade, Ben Chapman, Colin R. Tosh, Libby Marschall and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments which improved the manuscript invaluably. C. C. Ioannou is supported by a Leeds University Research Scholarship and J. Krause by a NERC grant. This study complies with UK law on animal experimentation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Integrative and Comparative BiologyUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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