Oecologia

, Volume 153, Issue 3, pp 727–737 | Cite as

Habitat choice, recruitment and the response of coral reef fishes to coral degradation

  • David A. Feary
  • Glenn R. Almany
  • Mark I. McCormick
  • Geoffrey P. Jones
Community Ecology

Abstract

The global degradation of coral reefs is having profound effects on the structure and species richness of associated reef fish assemblages. Historically, variation in the composition of fish communities has largely been attributed to factors affecting settlement of reef fish larvae. However, the mechanisms that determine how fish settlers respond to different stages of coral stress and the extent of coral loss on fish settlement are poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of habitat degradation on fish settlement using a two-stage experimental approach. First, we employed laboratory choice experiments to test how settlers responded to early and terminal stages of coral degradation. We then quantified the settlement response of the whole reef fish assemblage in a field perturbation experiment. The laboratory choice experiments tested how juveniles from nine common Indo-Pacific fishes chose among live colonies, partially degraded colonies, and dead colonies with recent algal growth. Many species did not distinguish between live and partially degraded colonies, suggesting settlement patterns are resilient to the early stages of declining coral health. Several species preferred live or degraded corals, and none preferred to associate with dead, algal-covered colonies. In the field experiment, fish recruitment to coral colonies was monitored before and after the introduction of a coral predator (the crown-of-thorns starfish) and compared with undisturbed control colonies. Starfish reduced live coral cover by 95–100%, causing persistent negative effects on the recruitment of coral-associated fishes. Rapid reductions in new recruit abundance, greater numbers of unoccupied colonies and a shift in the recruit community structure from one dominated by coral-associated fishes before degradation to one predominantly composed of algal-associated fish species were observed. Our results suggest that while resistant to coral stress, coral death alters the process of replenishment of coral reef fish communities.

Keywords

Coral reef fishes Habitat loss Settlement 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This project was supported by grants from the Australian Coral Reef Society, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Mahonia Na Dari Research and Conservation Centre, Walindi Plantation Resort and The Nature Conservancy to D. A. F., a National Science Foundation fellowship (IRFP no. 0202086) to G. R. A., a James Cook University Merit Research Grant to M. I. M. and an Australian Research Council Discovery grant to G. P. J. Many thanks to C. Denny, D. Godoy, T. Knight, L. Peacock, J. Pickering, B. Ponde, L. Romaso and S. van Dijken for invaluable field assistance. All experiments conducted in this study comply with Australian and Papua New Guinean laws.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Feary
    • 1
  • Glenn R. Almany
    • 1
  • Mark I. McCormick
    • 1
  • Geoffrey P. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Marine and Tropical BiologyJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

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