Oecologia

, Volume 149, Issue 2, pp 245–255 | Cite as

Body size patterns in Drosophila inhabiting a mesocosm: interactive effects of spatial variation in temperature and abundance

  • Marié Warren
  • Melodie A. McGeoch
  • Sue W. Nicolson
  • Steven L. Chown
Community Ecology

Abstract

Body size is a major component of fitness. However, the relative contributions of different factors to optimal size, and the determinants of spatial and temporal variation in size, have not been fully established empirically. Here, we use a mesocosm of a Drosophilidae assemblage inhabiting decaying nectarines to investigate the influence of spatial variation in temperature on adult body size in Drosophila simulans Sturtevant. Two treatments were established; one in the sun where developing larvae were exposed to high temperatures and the other in the shade where temperature conditions were milder. The simple developmental effects of temperature differences (i.e. larger flies are likely to emerge from cooler environments), or the simple effects of stressful temperatures (i.e. high temperatures yield wing abnormalities and smaller flies), were overridden by interactive effects between temperature and larval density. Emergences were lower in the sun than shade, probably as a result of temperature-induced mortality. However, flies attained the same final sizes in the shade and sun. In addition, abnormally winged flies were clustered in the shaded treatments. In the shade treatments, where emergences were higher than in the sun, stressful conditions as a result of high larval density likely resulted in wing abnormalities and small size. Consequently, there was little spatial variation in size across the mesocosm, but substantial spatial variation in abundance. Under natural conditions both mortality and non-lethal effects of temperature and/or crowding are likely to play a role in the evolution of body size.

Keywords

Abundance Crowding Spatial autocorrelation Stress 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Nordi Fruits is thanked for supplying the nectarines. We thank Joe Perry for discussion of SADIE, and Ruan Veldtman for comments on an earlier draft of the manuscript. Two anonymous referees provided helpful and insightful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (GUN2053618) and by the Mellon Foundation Mentoring Scheme, University of Pretoria.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marié Warren
    • 1
  • Melodie A. McGeoch
    • 2
  • Sue W. Nicolson
    • 1
  • Steven L. Chown
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Zoology and EntomologyUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa
  3. 3.Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and ZoologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa

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