Oecologia

, Volume 140, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

Carbon dioxide effects on stomatal responses to the environment and water use by crops under field conditions

Concepts, Reviews, and Syntheses

Abstract

Reductions in leaf stomatal conductance with rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) could reduce water use by vegetation and potentially alter climate. Crop plants have among the largest reductions in stomatal conductance at elevated [CO2]. The relative reduction in stomatal conductance caused by a given increase in [CO2] is often not constant within a day nor between days, but may vary considerably with light, temperature and humidity. Species also differ in response, with a doubling of [CO2] reducing mean midday conductances by <15% in some crop species to >50% in others. Elevated [CO2] increases leaf area index throughout the growing season in some species. Simulations, and measurements in free air carbon dioxide enrichment systems both indicate that the relatively large reductions in stomatal conductance in crops would translate into reductions of <10% in evapotranspiration, partly because of increases in temperature and decreases in humidity in the air around crop leaves. The reduction in evapotranspiration in crops is similar to that in other types of vegetation which have smaller relative reductions in stomatal conductance, because of the poorer aerodynamic coupling of the canopy to the atmosphere in crops. The small decreases in evapotranspiration at elevated [CO2] may themselves be important to crop production in dry environments, but changes in climate and microclimate caused by reduced stomatal conductance could also be important to crop production.

References

  1. Baker JY, Allen LH Jr, Boote KJ (1990) Growth and yield responses of rice to carbon dioxide concentration. J Agric Sci 115:313–320Google Scholar
  2. Ball JT, Woodrow IE, Berry JA (1987) A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: Biggens I (ed) Progress in photosynthesis research. Nijhoff, The Netherlands, pp 221–224Google Scholar
  3. Bounoua L, Collatz GJ, Sellers PJ, Randall DA, Dazlich DA, Los SO, Berry JA, Fung I, Tucker CJ, Field CB, Jensen TG (1999) Interaction between vegetation and climate: radiative and physiological effects of doubled atmospheric CO2. J Climate 12:309–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bryant J, Taylor G, Frehner M (1998) Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 is modified by source:sink balance in three component species of a chalk grassland sward grown in a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) study. Plant Cell Environ 21:159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bunce JA (1993) Effects of doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the responses of assimilation and conductance to humidity. Plant Cell Environ 16:189–197Google Scholar
  6. Bunce JA (1999) Leaf and root control of stomatal closure during drying in soybean. Physiol Plant 106:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bunce JA (2000) Responses of stomatal conductance to light, humidity and temperature in winter wheat and barley grown at three concentrations of carbon dioxide in the field. Global Change Biol 6:371–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bunce JA (2001a) Direct and acclimatory responses of stomatal conductance to elevated carbon dioxide in four herbaceous crop species in the field. Global Change Biol 7:323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bunce JA (2001b) The response of soybean seedling growth to carbon dioxide concentration at night in different thermal regimes. Biotronics 30:15–26Google Scholar
  10. Bunce JA (2003) Effects of water vapor pressure difference on leaf gas exchange in potato and sorghum at ambient and elevated carbon dioxide under field conditions. Field Crops Res 82:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bunce JA, Wilson KB, Carlson TN (1997) The effect of doubled CO2 on water use by alfalfa and orchard grass: simulating evapotranspiration using canopy conductance measurements. Global Change Biol 3:81–87Google Scholar
  12. Conley MM, Kimball BA, Brooks TJ, Pinter PA, Hunsaker DJ, Wall GW, Adam NR, LaMorte RL, Matthias AD, Thompson TL, Leavitt SW, Ottman MH, Cousins AB, Triggs JM (2001) CO2 enrichment increases water-use efficiency in sorghum. New Phytol 151:407–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curtis PS, Wang XZ (1998) A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecol 113:299–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garcia RL, Long SP, Wall GW, Osborne CP, Kimball BA, Nie GY, Pinter PH Jr, LaMorte RL, Wechsung F (1998) Photosynthesis and conductance of spring-wheat leaves: field response to continuous free-air atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Plant Cell Environ 21:659–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gottschalck JC, Gilles RR (2001) Implications of feedback processes in plant water usage and resulting climate change. J Am Water Res Assoc 37:305–314Google Scholar
  16. Grant RF, Kimball BA, Brooks TJ, Wall GW, Pinter PJ, Hunsaker DJ, Adamsen FJ, Leavitt SW, Thonpson TL, Matthias AD (2001) Modeling interactions among carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and climate on energy exchange of wheat in a free air carbon dioxide experiment. Agron J 93:638–649Google Scholar
  17. Gunderson CA, Sholtis JD, Wullschleger SD, Tissue DT, Hanson PJ, Norby RJ (2002) Environmental and stomatal control of photosynthetic enhancement in the canopy of a sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantation during 3 years of CO2 enrichment. Plant Cell Environ 25:379–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heath J (1998) Stomata of trees growing in CO2-enriched air show reduced sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit and drought. Plant Cell Environ 21:1077–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hikosaka K, Murakami A, Hirose T (1999) Balancing carboxylation and regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate in leaf photosynthesis: temperature acclimation of an evergreen tree, Quercus myrsinaefolia. Plant Cell Environ 22:841–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Homma K, Nakagawa H, Horie H, Ohnishi H, Kim HY, Ohnishi M (1999) Energy budget and transpiration characteristics of rice growth under elevated CO2 and high temperature conditions as determined by remotely sensed canopy temperatures. Jpn J Crop Sci 68:137–145Google Scholar
  21. Hunsaker DJ, Kimball BA, Pinter PJ, Wall GW, LaMorte RL, Adamsen FJ, Leavitt SW, Thompson TL, Matthias AD, Brooks TJ (2000) CO2 enrichment and soil nitrogen effects on wheat evapotranspiration and water use efficiency. Agric For Meteorol 104:85–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jacobs CMJ, DeBriun HAR (1997) Predicting regional transpiration at elevated atmospheric CO2: influence of the PBL-vegetation interactions. J Appl Meteorol 36:1663–1675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jarvis PG (1976) The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Phil Trans R Soc Lond 273:593–610Google Scholar
  24. Jarvis PG, McNaughton KG (1986) Stomatal control of transpiration: scaling up from leaf to region. Adv Ecol Res 15:1–49Google Scholar
  25. Jones P, Allen LH Jr, Jones JW, Valle R (1985) Photosynthesis and transpiration responses of soybean canopies to short- and long-term CO2 treatments. Agron J 77:119–126Google Scholar
  26. Kelliher FM, Leuning R, Raupach MR, Schulze E-D (1995) Maximum conductances for evaporation from global vegetation types. Agric For Meteorol 73:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lauber W, Korner C (1997) In situ stomatal responses to long-term CO2 enrichment in calcareous grassland species. Acta Oecol 18:221–229Google Scholar
  28. Lee TD, Tjoelker MG, Ellsworth DS, Reich PB (2001) Leaf gas exchange responses of 13 prairie greassland species to elevated CO2 and increased nitrogen supply. New Phytol 150:405–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Long SP (1991) Modification of the response of photosynthetic productivity to rising temperature by atmospheric CO2 concentrations: has its importance been underestimated? Plant Cell Environ 14:729–739Google Scholar
  30. McNaughton KG, Jarvis PG (1991) Effects of spatial scale on stomatal control of transpiration. Agric For Meteorol 54:279–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Medlyn BE, et al. (2001) Stomatal conductance of forest species after long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration: a synthesis. New Phytol 14:247–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Medlyn BE, Loustau D, Delzon S (2002) Temperature response of parameters of a biochemically based model of photosynthesis. I. Seasonal changes in mature maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.) Plant Cell Environ 25:1155-1165.Google Scholar
  33. Mitchell RAC, Mitchell VJ, Lawlor DW (2001) Response of wheat canopy CO2 and water gas-exchange to soil water content under ambient and elevated CO2. Global Change Biol 7:599–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nijs I, Ferris R, Blum H, Hendrey G, Impens I (1997) Stomatal regulation in a changing climate: a field study using free air temperature increase (FATI) and free air CO2 enrichment (FACE). Plant Cell Environ 20:1041–1050Google Scholar
  35. Ottman MJ, Kimball BA, Pinter PJ, Wall GW, Vanderlig RL, Leavitt SW, LaMorte RL, Matthias AD, Brooks TJ (2001) Elevated CO2 increases sorghum biomass under drought conditions. New Phytol 150:261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pataki DE, Huxman TE, Jordan DN, Zitzer SF, Coleman JS, Smith SD, Nowak RS, Seemann JR (2000) Water use by two Mojave Desert shrubs under elevated CO2. Global Change Biol 6:889–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pinter PJ Jr, Kimball BA, Garcia RL, Wall GA, Hunsaker DJ, LaMorte RL (1996) Free-air CO2 enrichment: responses of cotton and wheat crops. In: Koch GW, Mooney HA (eds) Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., pp 215–249Google Scholar
  38. Radin JW, Kimball BA, Hendrix DL, Mauney JR (1987) Photosynthesis of cotton plants exposed to elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the field. Photosynth Res 12:191–203Google Scholar
  39. Reddy KR, Hodeges HF, Kimball BA (2000) Crop ecosystem response to climatic change: cotton. In: Reddy KR, Hodges HF (eds) Climate change and global crop productivity. CABI, New York, pp 161–187Google Scholar
  40. Samarakoon AB, Gifford RM (1995) Soil water content under plants at high CO2 concentration and interactions with direct CO2 effects: a species comparison. J Biogeogr 22:193–202Google Scholar
  41. Seffaj R, Allen LH Jr, Sinclair TR (1999) Soybean leaf growth and gas exchange responses to drought under carbon dioxide enrichment. Global Change Biol 5:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tuba Z, Szente K, Kock J (1994) Responses of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and production to long-term elevated CO2 in winter wheat. J Plant Physiol 144:661–668Google Scholar
  43. Valentini R, Gamon JA, Field CG (1995) Ecosystem gas exchange in a California grassland: seasonal patterns and implication for scaling. Ecology 76:1940–1952.Google Scholar
  44. Wall GW, Brooks TJ, Adam NR, Cousins AB, Kimball BA, Pinter PJ Jr, LaMorte RL, Triggs J, Ottman MH, Leavitt SW, Matthias AD, Willimas DG, Webber AN (2001) Elevated atmospheric CO2 improved Sorghum plant water status by ameliorating the adverse effects of drought. New Phytol 152:231–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Weerakoon WMW, Ingram KT, Moss DN (2000) Atmospheric carbon dioxide and fertilizer nitrogen effects on radiation interception by rice. Plant Soil 220:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wilson KB, Bunce JA (1997) Effects of carbon dioxide concentration on the interactive effects of temperature and water vapour on stomatal conductance in soybean. Plant Cell Environ 20:230–238Google Scholar
  47. Wilson KB, Carlson TN, Bunce JA (1999) Feedback significantly influences the simulated effect of CO2 on seasonal evapotranspiration from two agricultural species. Global Change Biol 5:903–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wong SC, Cowan IF, Farquhar GD (1979) Stomatal conductance correlates with photosynthetic capacity. Nature 282:424–426Google Scholar
  49. Ziska LH, Namuco O, Moya T, Quilang J (1997) Growth and yield response of field-grown tropical rice to increasing carbon dioxide and air temperature. Agron J 89:45–53Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ACSL Plant Science Institute B-001ARS-USDA, Beltsville Agricultural Research CenterBeltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations