Effects of light and nutrient availability on the growth, allocation, carbon/nitrogen balance, phenolic chemistry, and resistance to herbivory of two freshwater macrophytes
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Phenotypic responses of Potamogeton amplifolius and Nuphar advena to different light (7% and 35% of surface irradiance) and nutrient environments were assessed with field manipulation experiments. Higher light and nutrient availability enhanced the growth of P. amplifolius by 154% and 255%, respectively. Additionally, biomass was allocated differently depending on the resource: high light availability resulted in a higher root/shoot ratio, whereas high nutrient availability resulted in a lower root/shoot ratio. Low light availability and high nutrient availability increased the nitrogen content of leaf tissue by 53% and 40% respectively, resulting in a 37% and 31% decrease in the C/N ratio. Root nitrogen content was also increased by low light and high nutrient availability, by 50% (P=0.0807) and 77% respectively, resulting in a 20% and 40% decrease in root C/N ratio. Leaf phenolics were significantly increased 72% by high light and 31% by high nutrient availability, but root phenolic concentrations were not altered significantly. None of these changes in tissue constituents resulted in altered palatability to crayfish. N. advena was killed by the same high nutrient treatment that stimulated growth in P. amplifolius, preventing assessment of phenotypic responses to nutrient availability. However, high light availability increased overall growth by 24%, but this was mainly due to increased growth of the rhizome (increased 100%), resulting in a higher root/shoot ratio. High light tended to increase the production of floating leaves (P=0.09) and significantly decreased the production of submersed leaves. High light availability decreased the nitrogen content by 15% and 25% and increased the phenolic concentration by 88% and 255% in floating and submersed leaves, respectively. These differences in leaf traits did not result in detectable differences in damage by herbivores.