Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 296, Issue 1, pp 57–66

T-box genes and the formation of vertebrate forelimb- and hindlimb specific pattern

  • H.-G. Simon


Limb patterning is thought to be a multistep process involving specification of the limb fields, establishment of defined signaling centers that globally inform cells of their position, interpretation of positional signals, and regulated growth and differentiation of the limb structures. Great progress has been made over the past few years in identifying the molecular players that control limb outgrowth and patterning, in particular, how the limb axes are specified. However, the molecular mechanism for determination of the morphological and functional differences between forelimbs and hindlimbs has remained elusive. The recent identification of a series of limb-specific transcription factors has now provided excellent candidates for such upstream regulators of limb identity, and has allowed new insights into the regulatory network of making a hand or a foot.

Key words Limb development Limb regeneration Limb identity T-box genes Tbx2 Tbx3 Tbx4 Tbx5 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • H.-G. Simon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Medical School, CMIER-Developmental Systems Biology, 2300 Children’s Plaza M/C 204, Chicago, IL 60614, USA e-mail: hgsimon@nwu.edu; Tel: +1 773 880 8307; Fax: +1 773 880 8266US

Personalised recommendations