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Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 375, Issue 1, pp 287–293 | Cite as

Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by peripheral neuropeptides: new approaches to enhancing transport and endogenous expression

  • M. R. LeeEmail author
  • R. D. JayantEmail author
Review
  • 319 Downloads

Abstract

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a structural and functional barrier between the interstitial fluid of the brain and the blood; the barrier maintains the precisely controlled biochemical environment that is necessary for neural function. This constellation of endothelial cells, macrophages, pericytes, and astrocytes forms the neurovascular unit which is the structural and functional unit of the blood-brain barrier. Peptides enter and exit the CNS by transport systems expressed by the capillary endothelial cells of the neurovascular unit. Limiting the transport of peptides and proteins into the brain are efflux transporters like P-gp are transmembrane proteins present on the luminal side of the cerebral capillary endothelium and their function is to promote transit and excretion of drugs from the brain to the blood. Nanocarrier systems have been developed to exploit transport systems for enhanced BBB transport. Recent approaches for enhancing endogenous peptide expression are discussed.

Keywords

Neuropeptides Oxytocin Blood-brain barrier (BBB) Receptor mediated transcytosis (RMT) CRISPR/Cas9-gRNA 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the Bench-to-Bedside (B2B) Grant (PI: Lee) and grant #R03DA044887-02 (PI- Jayant) funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section on Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology (CPN)National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)BethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of PharmacyTexas Tech University Health Sciences CenterAmarilloUSA

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