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Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 375, Issue 1, pp 5–22 | Cite as

Anatomy, development, and plasticity of the neurosecretory hypothalamus in zebrafish

  • Jatin Nagpal
  • Ulrich Herget
  • Min K. Choi
  • Soojin RyuEmail author
Review

Abstract

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus harbors diverse neurosecretory cells with critical physiological roles for the homeostasis. Decades of research in rodents have provided a large amount of information on the anatomy, development, and function of this important hypothalamic nucleus. However, since the hypothalamus lies deep within the brain in mammals and is difficult to access, many questions regarding development and plasticity of this nucleus still remain. In particular, how different environmental conditions, including stress exposure, shape the development of this important nucleus has been difficult to address in animals that develop in utero. To address these open questions, the transparent larval zebrafish with its rapid external development and excellent genetic toolbox offers exciting opportunities. In this review, we summarize recent information on the anatomy and development of the neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO), which represents a similar structure to the mammalian PVN in zebrafish. We will then review recent studies on the development of different cell types in the neurosecretory hypothalamus both in mouse and in fish. Lastly, we discuss stress-induced plasticity of the PVN mainly discussing the data obtained in rodents, but pointing out tools and approaches available in zebrafish for future studies. This review serves as a primer for the currently available information relevant for studying the development and plasticity of this important brain region using zebrafish.

Keywords

Hypothalamus Paraventricular nucleus Zebrafish Stress 

Abbreviations

ac

anterior commissure

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone

AgRP

agouti-related protein

AMPA

α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid–glutamate receptor agonist

aPV

anterior periventricular nucleus

ARC

arcuate nucleus

ARNT2

aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-2

Arx

aristaless-related homeodomain transcription factor

AVP

arginine vasopressin

bHLH

basic helix loop helix

CCK

cholecystokinin

CRH

corticotropin-releasing hormone

d

dorsal

Dlx

distal less homeodomain transcription factor

DMH

dorsomedial hypothalamus

ECR

evolutionarily conserved region in the enhancer

ENK

enkephalin

Fezf2

forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like protein

H

hypothalamus

Ha

habenula

HPA

hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis

IR

interrenal gland

Isl-1

islet-1 homeodomain transcription factor

lENK

leucine enkephalin

LHA

lateral hypothalamic area

MA

mammillary area

mENK

Methionine enkephalin

MSH

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

MTZ

Metronidazole (drug for nitroreductase cell ablation system)

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartate–glutamate receptor agonist

NPO

neurosecretory preoptic area/preoptic nucleus

NTS

neurotensin

oc

optic chiasm

Otp

Orthopedia homeodomain transcription factor

OXT

oxytocin

penka

proenkephalin a

penkb

proenkephalin b

Pit

pituitary

PM

magnocellular preoptic nucleus

PNC

parvocellular neuroendocrine cells

PO

preoptic area

poc

postoptic commissure

pomc

proopiomelanocortin

PPa

anterior parvocellular preoptic nucleus

PPp

posterior parvocellular preoptic nucleus

PT

posterior tuberculum

PTh

prethalamus

PVN

paraventricular nucleus

r

rostral

SIM1

single minded-1

SCN

suprachiasmatic nucleus

SON

supraoptic nucleus

SPV

supraoptoparaventricular region

SST/sst1.

1 somatostatin

STAR

steroidogenic acute regulatory protein

Tel

telencephalon

TeO

optic tectum

Th

thalamus

TRH

thyrotropin-releasing hormone

VIP

vasoactive intestinal peptide

VMH

ventromedial hypothalamus

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by the Max Planck Society, the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, the German Federal Office for Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung) grant number 01GQ1404 to S.R., and German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) SPP1926 Next Generation Optogenetics grant to S.R.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.German Resilience CenterUniversity Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University MainzMainzGermany
  2. 2.Division of Biology and Biological EngineeringCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

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