Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 370, Issue 1, pp 29–39 | Cite as

Role of TGF-β in metastatic colon cancer: it is finally time for targeted therapy

  • Maria Villalba
  • Stephanie R. Evans
  • Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha
  • Alfonso CalvoEmail author


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent tumor types in Western countries. Approximately 20 % of patients show metastasis at the time of diagnosis, with the liver being one of the most affected organs. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) plays a regulatory role not only in the physiology of the normal colon but also in the development of CRC and its metastatic process. In this review, we analyze the molecular mechanisms leading to TGF-β dysregulation in tumor and stroma cells and the modification of the microenvironment that fosters CRC metastasis. Recent genomic studies have identified a CRC subtype with a mesenchymal and aggressive phenotype having TGF-β as a hub gene of this signature. Consistent with these findings, the inhibition of TGF-β signaling has been shown to impair experimental CRC metastasis to the liver. Based on these and other results conducted in various tumor types, the pharmaceutical industry has developed a variety of strategies to target TGF-β. We provide up-to-date information of these therapies, which are currently in preclinical or clinical trials.


Colon cancer Metastasis TGF-beta Cancer stem cells Epithelial to mesenchymal transition 



This work was supported by CIBERONC (co-funded with FEDER), RTICC (RD12/0036/0040), FIS (PI13/00093 and PI16/01352), MINECO (BIO2013-50458-EXP) and the AECC Scientific Foundation (GCB14-2170, to A.C.). Maria Villalba was supported by a FPU fellowship (FPU-14/03247).


  1. Alazzouzi H, Alhopuro P, Salovaara R, Sammalkorpi H, Järvinen H, Mecklin JP, Hemminki A, Schwartz S Jr, Aaltonen LA, Arango D (2005) SMAD4 as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11:2606–2611. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-1458 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Armaghany T, Wilson JD, Chu Q, Mills G (2012) Genetic alterations in colorectal cancer. Gastrointest Cancer Res 5:19–27PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Badiola I, Olaso E, Crende O, Friedman SL, Vidal-Vanaclocha F (2012) Discoidin domain receptor 2 deficiency predisposes hepatic tissue to colon carcinoma metastasis. Gut 61:1465–1472. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300810 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellam N, Pasche B (2010) Tgf-beta signaling alterations and colon cancer. Cancer Treat Res 155:85–103. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6033-7_5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bierie B, Moses HL (2010) Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and inflammation in cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 21:49–59. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2009.11.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Binefa G, Rodríguez-Moranta F, Teule A, Medina-Hayas M (2014) Colorectal cancer: from prevention to personalized medicine. World J Gastroenterol 20:6786–6808. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i22.6786 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bogdahn U, Hau P, Stockhammer G, Venkataramana NK, Mahapatra AK, Suri A, Balasubramaniam A, Nair S, Oliushine V, Parfenov V, Poverennova I, Zaaroor M, Jachimczak P, Ludwig S, Schmaus S, Heinrichs H, Schlingensiepen KH, Trabedersen Glioma Study Group (2011) Targeted therapy for high-grade glioma with the TGF-β2 inhibitor trabedersen: results of a randomized and controlled phase IIb study. Neuro-Oncology 13:132–142. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/noq142 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Caestecker MP de, Piek E, Roberts AB (2000) Role of transforming growth factor-beta signaling in cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:1388–1402Google Scholar
  9. Calon A, Tauriello DVBE (2014) TGF-beta in CAF-mediated tumor growth and metastasis. Semin Cancer Biol 25:15–22. doi: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2013.12.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Calon A, Espinet E, Palomo-Ponce S, Tauriello DV, Iglesias M, Céspedes MV, Sevillano M, Nadal C, Jung P, Zhang XH, Byrom D, Riera A, Rossell D, Mangues R, Massagué J, Sancho E, Batlle E (2012) Dependency of colorectal cancer on a TGF-β-driven program in stromal cells for metastasis initiation. Cancer Cell 22:571–584. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2012.08.013 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Calon A, Lonardo E, Berenguer-Llergo A, Espinet E, Hernando-Momblona X, Iglesias M, Sevillano M, Palomo-Ponce S, Tauriello DV, Byrom D, Cortina C, Morral C, Barceló C, Tosi S, Riera A, Attolini CS, Rossell D, Sancho E, Batlle E (2015) Stromal gene expression defines poor-prognosis subtypes in colorectal cancer. Nat Genet 47:320–329. doi: 10.1038/ng.3225 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen X, Yang Y, Zhou Q, Weiss JM, Howard OZ, McPherson JM, Wakefield LM, Oppenheim JJ (2014) Effective chemoimmunotherapy with anti-TGFβ antibody and cyclophosphamide in a mouse model of breast cancer. PLoS One 9:1–10. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085398 Google Scholar
  13. Chong G, Cunningham D (2005) Improving long-term outcomes for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 23:9063–9066. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2005.04.4669 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Connolly EC, Akhurst RJ (2011) The complexities of TGF-β action during mammary and squamous cell carcinogenesis. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 12:2138–2149CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. De Crescenzo G, Hinck CS, Shu Z, Zúñiga J, Yang J, Tang Y, Baardsnes J, Mendoza V, Sun L, López-Casillas F, O’Connor-McCourt M, Hinck AP (2006) Three key residues underlie the differential affinity of the TGFbeta isoforms for the TGFbeta type II receptor. J Mol Biol 355:47–62. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2005.10.022 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Derynck R, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A (2001) TGF-beta signaling in tumor suppression and cancer progression. Nat Genet 29:117–129. doi: 10.1038/ng1001-117 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dickson MC, Martin JS, Cousins FM, Kulkarni AB, Karlsson S, Akhurst RJ (1995) Defective haematopoiesis and vasculogenesis in transforming growth factor-beta 1 knock out mice. Development 121:1845–1854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ge R, Rajeev V, Ray P, Lattime E, Rittling S, Medicherla S, Protter A, Murphy A, Chakravarty J, Dugar S, Schreiner G, Barnard N, Reiss M (2006) Inhibition of growth and metastasis of mouse mammary carcinoma by selective inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor kinase in vivo. Clin Cancer Res 12:4315–4330. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0162 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ghisoli M, Barve M, Schneider R, Mennel R, Lenarsky C, Wallraven G, Pappen BO, LaNoue J, Kumar P, Nemunaitis D, Roth A, Nemunaitis J, Whiting S, Senzer N, Fletcher FA, Nemunaitis J (2015) Pilot trial of FANG immunotherapy in Ewing’s sarcoma. Mol Ther J Am Soc Gene Ther 23:1103–1109. doi: 10.1038/mt.2015.43 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Giaccone G, Bazhenova LA, Nemunaitis J, Tan M, Juhász E, Ramlau R, Heuvel MM van den, Lal R, Kloecker GH, Eaton KD, Chu Q, Dunlop DJ, Jain M, Garon EB, Davis CS, Carrier E, Moses SC, Shawler DL, Fakhrai H (2015) A phase III study of belagenpumatucel-L, an allogeneic tumour cell vaccine, as maintenance therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cancer 51:2321–2329. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2015.07.035
  21. Gille H, Kowalski J, Li B, LeCouter J, Moffat B, Zioncheck TF, Pelletier N, Ferrara N (2001) Analysis of biological effects and signaling properties of Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and KDR (VEGFR-2): a reassessment using novel receptor-specific vascular endothelial growth factor mutants. J Biol Chem 276:3222–3230. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M002016200 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gonzalez-Zubeldia I, Dotor J, Redrado M, Bleau AM, Manrique I, Aberasturi AL de, Villalba M, Calvo A (2015) Co-migration of colon cancer cells and CAFs induced by TGFβ1 enhances liver metastasis. Cell Tissue Res 359:829–839. doi: 10.1007/s00441-014-2075-6
  23. Guinney J, Dienstmann R, Wang X, Reyniès A de, Schlicker A, Soneson C, Marisa L, Roepman P, Nyamundanda G, Angelino P, Bot BM, Morris JS, Simon IM, Gerster S, Fessler E, De Sousa E Melo F, Missiaglia E, Ramay H, Barras D, Homicsko K, Maru D, Manyam GC, Broom B, Boige V, Perez-Villamil B, Laderas T, Salazar R, Gray JW, Hanahan D, Tabernero J, Bernards R, Friend SH, Laurent-Puig P, Medema JP, Sadanandam A, Wessels L, Delorenzi M, Kopetz S, Vermeulen L, Tejpar S (2015) The consensus molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer. Nat Med 21:1350–1356. doi: 10.1038/nm.3967
  24. Herbertz S, Sawyer JS, Stauber AJ, Gueorguieva I, Driscoll KE, Estrem ST, Cleverly AL, Desaiah D, Guba SC, Benhadji KA, Slapak CA, Lahn MM (2015) Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate), a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway. Drug Des Dev Ther 9:4479–4499. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S86621 Google Scholar
  25. Hinck AP, O’Connor-McCourt MD (2011) Structures of TGF-β receptor complexes: implications for function and therapeutic intervention using ligand traps. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 12:2081–2098CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Horiguchi M, Ota M, Rifkin DB (2012) Matrix control of transforming growth factor-β function. J Biochem 152:321–329. doi: 10.1093/jb/mvs089 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Inman GJ (2011) Switching TGFβ from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter. Curr Opin Genet Dev 21:93-99. doi:  10.1016/j.gde.2010.12.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Isaksson-Mettävainio M, Palmqvist R, Forssell J, Stenling R, Oberg A (2006) SMAD4/DPC4 expression and prognosis in human colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res 26:507–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ji Q, Liu X, Han Z, Zhou L, Sui H, Yan L, Jiang H, Ren J, Cai J, Li Q (2015) Resveratrol suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer through TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway mediated snail/E-cadherin expression. BMC Cancer 15:1–12. doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1119-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaartinen V, Voncken JW, Shuler C, Warburton D, Bu D, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J (1995) Abnormal lung development and cleft palate in mice lacking TGF-beta 3 indicates defects of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Nat Genet 11:415–421. doi: 10.1038/ng1295-415 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kodach LL, Wiercinska E, Miranda NFCC de, Bleuming SA, Musler AR, Peppelenbosch MP, Dekker E, Brink GR van den, Noesel CJ van, Morreau H, Hommes DW, Ten Dijke P, Offerhaus GJ, Hardwick JC (2008) The bone morphogenetic protein pathway is inactivated in the majority of sporadic colorectal cancers. Gastroenterology 134:1332–1341. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.02.059
  32. Korpal M, Kang Y (2010) Targeting the transforming growth factor-beta signalling pathway in metastatic cancer. Eur J Cancer 46:1232–1240. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2010.02.040 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Krstic J, Santibanez JF (2014) Transforming growth factor-beta and matrix metalloproteinases: functional interactions in tumor stroma-infiltrating myeloid cells. Sci World J 2014:1–14. doi: 10.1155/2014/521754 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Laverty HG, Wakefield LM, Occleston NL, O’Kane S, Ferguson MW (2009) TGF-beta3 and cancer: a review. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 20:305–317. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2009.07.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Maggio-Price L, Treuting P, Zeng W, Tsang M, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Iritani BM (2006) Helicobacter infection is required for inflammation and colon cancer in SMAD3-deficient mice. Cancer Res 66:828–838. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2448 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Mao J-H, Saunier EF, Koning JP de, McKinnon MM, Higgins MN, Nicklas K, Yang HT, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ (2006) Genetic variants of Tgfb1 act as context-dependent modifiers of mouse skin tumor susceptibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8125–8130. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0602581103
  37. Marisa L, Reyniès A de, Duval A, Selves J, Gaub MP, Vescovo L, Etienne-Grimaldi MC, Schiappa R, Guenot D, Ayadi M, Kirzin S, Chazal M, Fléjou JF, Benchimol D, Berger A, Lagarde A, Pencreach E, Piard F, Elias D, Parc Y, Olschwang S, Milano G, Laurent-Puig P, Boige V (2013) Gene expression classification of colon cancer into molecular subtypes: characterization, validation, and prognostic value. PLoS Med 10:e1001453. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001453
  38. Massagué J (2012) TGFβ signalling in context. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 13:616–630. doi: 10.1038/nrm3434 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Medina-Echeverz J, Vasquez M, Gomar C, Ardaiz N, Berraondo P (2015) Overexpression of apolipoprotein A-I fused to an anti-transforming growth factor beta peptide modulates the tumorigenicity and immunogenicity of mouse colon cancer cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 64:717–725. doi: 10.1007/s00262-015-1681-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Melisi D, Ishiyama S, Sclabas GM, Fleming JB, Xia Q, Tortora G, Abbruzzese JL, Chiao PJ (2008) LY2109761, a novel transforming growth factor beta receptor type I and type II dual inhibitor, as a therapeutic approach to suppressing pancreatic cancer metastasis. Mol Cancer Ther 7:829–840. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-0337 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Mohammad KS, Javelaud D, Fournier PGJ, Niewolna M, McKenna CR, Peng XH, Duong V, Dunn LK, Mauviel A, Guise TA (2011) TGF-beta-RI kinase inhibitor SD-208 reduces the development and progression of melanoma bone metastases. Cancer Res 71:175–184. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2651 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Morris JC, Tan AR, Olencki TE, Shapiro GI, Dezube BJ, Reiss M, Hsu FJ, Berzofsky JA, Lawrence DP (2014) Phase I study of GC1008 (Fresolimumab): a human anti-transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) monoclonal antibody in patients with advanced malignant melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090353 Google Scholar
  43. Mukaida N, Sasaki S (2016) Fibroblasts, an inconspicuous but essential player in colon cancer development and progression. World J Gastroenterol 22:5301. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i23.5301 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Padua D, Massagué J (2009) Roles of TGFbeta in metastasis. Cell Res 19:89–102. doi: 10.1038/cr.2008.316 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Pardali K, Moustakas A (2007) Actions of TGF-beta as tumor suppressor and pro-metastatic factor in human cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 1775:21–62. doi: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2006.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Park CY, Min KN, Son JY, Park SY, Nam JS, Kim DK, Sheen YY (2014) An novel inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, IN-1130, blocks breast cancer lung metastasis through inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cancer Lett 351:72–80. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2014.05.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Peñuelas S, Anido J, Prieto-Sánchez RM, Folch G, Barba I, Cuartas I, García-Dorado D, Poca MA, Sahuquillo J, Baselga J, Seoane J (2009) TGF-beta increases glioma-initiating cell self-renewal through the induction of LIF in human glioblastoma. Cancer Cell 15:315–327. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2009.02.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pickup M, Novitskiy S, Moses HL (2013) The roles of TGFβ in the tumour microenvironment. Nat Rev Cancer 13:788–799. doi: 10.1038/nrc3603 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Picon A, Gold LI, Wang J, Cohen A, Friedman E (1998) A subset of metastatic human colon cancers expresses elevated levels of transforming growth factor beta1. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:497–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Pierce DF, Gorska AE, Chytil A, Meise KS, Page DL, Coffey RJ Jr, Moses HL (1995) Mammary tumor suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 transgene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:4254–4258CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Principe DR, Doll JA, Bauer J, Jung B, Munshi HG, Bartholin L, Pasche B, Lee C, Grippo PJ (2014) TGF-β: duality of function between tumor prevention and carcinogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 106:1–16. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djt369 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Proetzel G, Pawlowski SA, Wiles MV, Yin M, Boivin GP, Howles PN, Ding J, Ferguson MW, Doetschman T (1995) Transforming growth factor-beta 3 is required for secondary palate fusion. Nat Genet 11:409–414. doi: 10.1038/ng1295-409 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Raskov H, Pommergaard H-C, Burcharth J, Rosenberg J (2014) Colorectal carcinogenesis—update and perspectives. World J Gastroenterol 20:18151–18164. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i48.18151 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Raval M, Bande D, Pillai AK, Blaszkowsky LS, Ganguli S, Beg MS, Kalva SP (2014) Yttrium-90 radioembolization of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Front Oncol 4:120. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2014.00120 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Sanford LP, Ormsby I, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, Sariola H, Friedman R, Boivin GP, Cardell EL, Doetschman T (1997) TGFβ2 knockout mice have multiple developmental defects that are non-overlapping with other TGFβ knockout phenotypes. Development 124:2659–2670PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Scheel CWR (2012) Cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition: concepts and molecular links. Semin Cancer Biol 22:396–403. doi: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2012.04.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Sheen YY, Kim MJ, Park SA, Park SY, Nam JS (2013) Targeting the transforming growth factor-β signaling in cancer therapy. Biomol Ther 21:323–331. doi: 10.4062/biomolther.2013.072 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shi YMJ (2003) Mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus. Cell 113:685–700CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2016) Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 66:7–30. doi: 10.3322/caac.21332 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Stolfi C, De Simone V, Colantoni A, Franzè E, Ribichini E, Fantini MC, Caruso R, Monteleone I, Sica GS, Sileri P, MacDonald TT, Pallone F, Monteleone G (2014) A functional role for Smad7 in sustaining colon cancer cell growth and survival. Cell Death Dis 5:e1073. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2014.49 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Takaku K, Oshima M, Miyoshi H, Matsui M, Seldin MF, Taketo MM (1998) Intestinal tumorigenesis in compound mutant mice of both Dpc4 (Smad4) and Apc genes. Cell 92:645–656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Takaku S, Terabe M, Ambrosino E, Peng J, Lonning S, McPherson JM, Berzofsky JA (2010) Blockade of TGF-beta enhances tumor vaccine efficacy mediated by CD8(+) T cells. Int J Cancer 126:1666–1674. doi: 10.1002/ijc.24961 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Tsushima H, Ito N, Tamura S, Matsuda Y, Inada M, Yabuuchi I, Imai Y, Nagashima R, Misawa H, Takeda H, Matsuzawa Y, Kawata S (2001) Circulating transforming growth factor beta 1 as a predictor of liver metastasis after resection in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res 7:1258–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Van Meeteren LA, Ten Dijke P (2012) Regulation of endothelial cell plasticity by TGF-β. Cell Tissue Res 347:177–186. doi: 10.1007/s00441-011-1222-6
  65. Van Meeteren LA, Thorikay M, Bergqvist S, Pardali E, Stampino CG, Hu-Lowe D, Goumans MJ, Ten Dijke P (2012) Anti-human activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) antibody attenuates bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9)-induced ALK1 signaling and interferes with endothelial cell sprouting. J Biol Chem 287:18551–18561. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.338103 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Vidal-Vanaclocha F (2011) The liver prometastatic reaction of cancer patients: implications for microenvironment-dependent colon cancer gene regulation. Cancer Microenviron 4:163–180. doi: 10.1007/s12307-011-0084-5 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Voorneveld PW, Kodach LL, Jacobs RJ, Noesel CJ van, Peppelenbosch MP, Korkmaz KS, Molendijk I, Dekker E, Morreau H, Pelt GW van, Tollenaar RA, Mesker W, Hawinkels LJ, Paauwe M, Verspaget HW, Geraets DT, Hommes DW, Offerhaus GJ, Brink GR van den, Ten Dijke P, Hardwick JC (2015) The BMP pathway either enhances or inhibits the Wnt pathway depending on the SMAD4 and p53 status in CRC. Br J Cancer 112:122–130. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2014.560
  68. Wakefield LM, Hill CS (2013) Beyond TGFβ: roles of other TGFβ superfamily members in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 13:328–341. doi: 10.1038/nrc3500 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wang X, Solban N, Khanna P, Callea M, Song J, Alsop DC, Pearsall RS, Atkins MB, Mier JW, Signoretti S, Alimzhanov M, Kumar R, Bhasin MK, Bhatt RS (2016) Inhibition of ALK1 signaling with dalantercept combined with VEGFR TKI leads to tumor stasis in renal cell carcinoma. Oncotarget. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.9621 Google Scholar
  70. Zhang B, Halder SK, Zhang S, Datta PK (2009) Targeting transforming growth factor-beta signaling in liver metastasis of colon cancer. Cancer Lett 277:114–120. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2008.11.035 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhang B, Halder SK, Kashikar ND, Cho YJ, Datta A, Gorden DL, Datta PK (2010) Antimetastatic role of Smad4 signaling in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 138:969–80.e1–3. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.11.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Zubeldia IG, Bleau A-M, Redrado M, Serrano D, Agliano A, Gil-Puig C, Vidal-Vanaclocha F, Lecanda J, Calvo A (2013) Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotypes leading to liver metastasis are abrogated by the novel TGFβ1-targeting peptides P17 and P144. Exp Cell Res 319:12–22. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2012.11.004

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Villalba
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stephanie R. Evans
    • 1
  • Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha
    • 3
  • Alfonso Calvo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.CIBERONC, IDISNA, and Program in Solid Tumors and Biomarkers, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA)University of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Histology and Pathology, School of MedicineUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  3. 3.Valencia Institute of Pathology (IVP)Catholic University of Valencia School of Medicine and OdontologyValenciaSpain
  4. 4.Laboratory 2.03, Program in Solid Tumors and BiomarkersCenter for Applied Medical Research (CIMA)PamplonaSpain

Personalised recommendations