Advertisement

Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 361, Issue 1, pp 337–358 | Cite as

Age-related changes in the central auditory system

  • Ladislav Ouda
  • Oliver Profant
  • Josef SykaEmail author
Review

Abstract

Aging is accompanied by the deterioration of hearing that complicates our understanding of speech, especially in noisy environments. This deficit is partially caused by the loss of hair cells as well as by the dysfunction of the stria vascularis. However, the central part of the auditory system is also affected by processes accompanying aging that may run independently of those affecting peripheral receptors. Here, we review major changes occurring in the central part of the auditory system during aging. Most of the information that is focused on age-related changes in the central auditory system of experimental animals arises from experiments using immunocytochemical targeting on changes in the glutamic-acid-decarboxylase, parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin. These data are accompanied by information about age-related changes in the number of neurons as well as about changes in the behavior of experimental animals. Aging is in principle accompanied by atrophy of the gray as well as white matter, resulting in the enlargement of the cerebrospinal fluid space. The human auditory cortex suffers not only from atrophy but also from changes in the content of some metabolites in the aged brain, as shown by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition to this, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals differences between activation of the central auditory system in the young and old brain. Altogether, the information reviewed in this article speaks in favor of specific age-related changes in the central auditory system that occur mostly independently of the changes in the inner ear and that form the basis of the central presbycusis.

Keywords

Presbycusis Immunocytochemistry MRI Human brain Animal brain 

Abbreviations

AC

Auditory cortex

AI

Primary auditory cortex

ASR

Acoustic startle reflex

C57

C57/BL/6J mouse strain

CB

Calbindin

CB(PV/CR)−/−

CB(PV/CR)-deficient strain of mice

CBA

CBA/CaJ mouse strain

CBP(s)

Calcium binding protein(s)

CL

Caudolateral auditory field

CNs

Cochlear nuclei

CR

Calretinin

Cr

Creatine

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DCN

Dorsal cochlear nucleus

DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging

EP

Elderly subjects with expressed presbycusis

F344

Fischer 344 rat strain

FA

Fractional anisotropy

fMRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

GABA

Gamma aminobutyric acid

GAD67

Glutamate-decarboxylase (isoform 67)

GM

Gray matter

GrayVol

Gray matter volume

HG

Heschl’s gyrus

IC

Inferior colliculus

Ins

Myo-inositol

-ir

Immunoreactive

Long-Evans

Long-Evans rat strain

MCI

Mild cognitive impairment

MD

Mean diffusivity

MGB

Medial geniculate body

MMN

Mismatch negativity

MNTB

Medial nucleus of trapezoid body

MP

Elderly subjects with mild presbycusis

MRM

Magnetic resonance morphometry

MRS

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

MRs

MR spectroscopy

NAA

N-acetylaspartate

NADPH-d

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate diaphorase

PCr

Phosphocreatine

PET

Positron emission tomography

PPI

Prepulse inhibition

PT

Planum temporale

PV

Parvalbumin

ROI

Region of interest

SNHL

Sensorineural hearing loss

VCN

Ventral cochlear nucleus

VOI

Volume of interest

VOT

Varying voice onset times

WM

White matter

WML

White matter lesion

YC

Young subjects with physiologic hearing

Notes

Acknowledgment

This study was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic P304/12/G069 and P304/12/1342.

References

  1. Abe O, Yamasue H, Yamada H, Masutani Y, Kabasawa H, Sasaki H, Takei K, Suga M, Kasai K, Aoki S, Ohtomo K (2010) Sex dimorphism in gray/white matter volume and diffusion tensor during normal aging. NMR Biomed 23:446–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aboitiz F, Rodriguez E, Olivares R, Zaidel E (1996) Age-related changes in fibre composition of the human corpus callosum: Sex differences. Neuroreport 7:1761–1764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Achard S, Bullmore ET (2007) Efficiency and cost of economical brain functional networks. PLoS Comput Biol 3:174–183Google Scholar
  4. Aine CJ, Bryant JE, Knoefel JE, Adair JC, Hart B, Donahue CH, Montano R, Hayek R, Qualls C, Ranken D, Stephen JM (2010) Different strategies for auditory word recognition in healthy versus normal aging. Neuroimage 49:3319–3330PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alain C, McDonald KL, Ostroff JM, Schneider B (2001) Age-related changes in detecting a mistuned harmonic. J Acoust Soc Am 109:2211–2216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alibardi L (1999) Fine structure, synaptology and immunocytochemistry of large neurons in the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus connected to the inferior colliculus. J Hirnforsch 39:429–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Allen PD, Eddins DA (2010) Presbycusis phenotypes form a heterogeneous continuum when ordered by degree and configuration of hearing loss. Hear Res 264:10–20PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Allen JS, Bruss J, Brown CK, Damasio H (2005) Normal neuroanatomical variation due to age: the major lobes and a parcellation of the temporal region. Neurobiol Aging 26:1245–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alzheimer’s Association (2011) 2011 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement 7:208–244Google Scholar
  10. Amenedo E, Diaz F (1998) Automatic and effortful processes in auditory memory reflected by event-related potentials. Age-related findings. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 108:361–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Andres P, Parmentier FBR, Escera C (2006) The effect of age on involuntary capture of attention by irrelevant sounds: a test of the frontal hypothesis of aging. Neuropsychologia 44:2564–2568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Angelie E, Bonmartin A, Boudraa A, Gonnaud PM, Mallet JJ, Sappey-Marinier D (2001) Regional differences and metabolic changes in normal aging of the human brain: proton MR spectroscopic imaging study. Am J Neuroradiol 22:119–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Appelman APA, Exalto LG, van der Graaf Y, Biessels GJ, Mali W, Geerlings MI (2009) White matter lesions and brain atrophy: more than shared risk factors? A systematic review. Cerebrovasc Dis 28:227–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ardekani S, Kumar A, Bartzokis G, Sinha U (2007) Exploratory voxel-based analysis of diffusion indices and hemispheric asymmetry in normal aging. Magn Reson Imaging 25:154–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ascoli GA, Alonso-Nanclares L, Anderson SA, Barrionuevo G, Benavides-Piccione R, Burkhalter A, Buzsaki G et al (2008) Petilla terminology: nomenclature of features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex. Nat Rev Neurosci 9:557–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Aydin K, Ciftci K, Terzibasioglu E, Ozkan M, Demirtas A, Sencer S, Minareci O (2005) Quantitative proton MR spectroscopic findings of cortical reorganization in the auditory cortex of musicians. Am J Neuroradiol 26:128–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Banay-Schwartz M, Lajtha A, Palkovits M (1989) Changes with aging in the levels of amino acids in rat CNS structural elements. I. Glutamate and related amino acids. Neurochem Res 14:555–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bao SW, Chang EF, Woods J, Merzenich MM (2004) Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning. Nat Neurosci 7:974–981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Beierlein M, Gibson J, Connors B (2000) A network of electrically coupled interneurons drives synchronized inhibition in neocortex. Nat Neurosci 3:904–910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bellis TJ, Nicol T, Kraus N (2000) Aging affects hemispheric asymmetry in the neural representation of speech sounds. J Neurosci 20:791–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bertoli S, Smurzynski J, Probst R (2002) Temporal resolution in young and elderly subjects as measured by mismatch negativity and a psychoacoustic gap detection task. Clin Neurophysiol 113:396–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bertoli S, Smurzynski J, Probst R (2005) Effects of age, age-related hearing loss, and contralateral cafeteria noise on the discrimination of small frequency changes: psychoacoustic and electrophysiological measures. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 6:207–222PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bigler ED, Andersob CV, Blatter DD (2002) Temporal lobe morphology in normal aging and traumatic brain injury. Am J Neuroradiol 23:255–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bischkopf J, Busse A, Angermeyer MC (2002) Mild cognitive impairment - a review of prevalence, incidence and outcome according to current approaches. Acta Psychiatr Scand 106:403–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boyen K, Langers DRM, de Kleine E, van Dijk P (2013) Gray matter in the brain: differences associated with tinnitus and hearing loss. Hear Res 295:67–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bredberg G (1968) Cellular pattern and nerve supply of the human organ of Corti. Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl 236:1+Google Scholar
  27. Browndyke JN, Giovanello K, Petrella J, Hayden K, Chiba-Falek O, Tucker KA, Burke JR, Welsh-Bohmer KA (2013) Phenotypic regional functional imaging patterns during memory encoding in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 9:284–294PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bu J, Sathyendra V, Nagykery N, Geula C (2003) Age-related changes in calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the human cerebral cortex. Exp Neurol 182:220–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Buckiova D, Popelar J, Syka J (2006) Collagen changes in the cochlea of aged Fischer 344 rats. Exp Gerontol 41:296–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Buckiova D, Popelar J, Syka J (2007) Aging cochleas in the F344 rat: morphological and functional changes. Exp Gerontol 42:629–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Burianova J, Ouda L, Profant O, Syka J (2009) Age-related changes in GAD levels in the central auditory system of the rat. Exp Gerontol 44:161–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Burkard RF, Sims D (2001) The human auditory brainstem response to high click rates: aging effects. Am J Audiol 10:53–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Buzsáki G, Draguhn A (2004) Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks. Science 304:1926–1929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Casey MA, Feldman ML (1982) Aging in the rat medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. I. Light microscopy. Neurobiol Aging 3:187–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Casey MA, Feldman ML (1988) Age-related loss of synaptic terminals in the rat medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. Neuroscience 24:189–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Caspary DM, Finlayson PG (1991) Superior olivary complex: functional neuropharmacology of the principal cell types. In: Altschuler RA, Hoffman DW, Bobbin RP, Clopton B (eds) Neurobiology of hearing, Vol. II: the central auditory system. Raven, New York, pp 141–162Google Scholar
  37. Caspary DM, Raza A, Lawhorn Armour BA, Pippin J, Arneric SP (1990) Immunocytochemical and neurochemical evidence for age-related loss of GABA in the inferior colliculus: implications for neural presbycusis. J Neurosci 10:2363–2372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Caspary DM, Milbrandt JC, Helfert RH (1995) Central auditory aging: GABA changes in the inferior colliculus. Exp Gerontol 30:349–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Caspary DM, Holder TM, Hughes LF, Milbrandt JC, McKernan RM, Naritoku DK (1999) Age-related changes in GABAA receptor subunit composition and function in rat auditory system. Neuroscience 93:307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Caspary DM, Schatteman TA, Hughes LF (2005) Age-related changes in the inhibitory response properties of dorsal cochlear nucleus output neurons: role of inhibitory inputs. J Neurosci 25:10952–10959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Caspary DM, Ling L, Turner JG, Hughes LF (2008) Inhibitory neurotransmission, plasticity and aging in the mammalian central auditory system. J Exp Biol 211:1781–1791PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Caspary DM, Hughes LF, Ling LL (2013) Age-related GABAA receptor changes in rat auditory cortex. Neurobiol Aging 34:1486–1496PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Celio MR (1990) Calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin in the rat nervous system. Neuroscience 35:375–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ceyhan E, Beg MF, Ceritoglu C, Wang L, Morris JC, Csernansky JG, Miller MI, Ratnanather JT (2011) Quantization and analysis of hippocampal morphometric changes due to dementia of Alzheimer type using metric distances based on large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Comput Med Imaging Graph 35:275–293PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Chang L, Ernst T, Poland RE, Jenden DJ (1996) In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the normal aging human brain. Life Sci 58:2049–2056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Chang YM, Lee SH, Lee YJ, Hwang MJ, Bae SJ, Kim MN, Lee JM, Woo SK, Lee HJ, Kang DS (2004) Auditory neural pathway evaluation on sensorineural hearing loss using diffusion tensor imaging. Neuroreport 15:1699–1703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chang L, Jiang CS, Ernst T (2009) Effects of age and sex on brain glutamate and other metabolites. Magn Reson Imaging 27:142–145Google Scholar
  48. Chen XM, Liang YH, Deng YH, Li JZ, Chen SY, Wang CX, Luo P (2013) Age-associated reduction of asymmetry in human central auditory function: a 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Neural Plast. doi: 10.1155/2013/735290 Google Scholar
  49. Courchesne E, Chisum HJ, Townsend J, Cowles A, Covington J, Egaas B, Harwood M, Hinds S, Press GA (2000) Normal brain development and aging: quantitative analysis at in vivo MR imaging in healthy volunteers. Radiology 216:672–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Cruikshank SJ, Killackey HP, Metherate R (2001) Parvalbumin and calbindin are differentially distributed within primary and secondary subregions of the mouse auditory forebrain. Neuroscience 105:553–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Cumming GS (1996) Mantis movements by night and the interactions of sympatric bats and mantises. Can J Zool 74:1771–1774Google Scholar
  52. Davis M, Gendelman D, Tischler M, Gendelman P (1982) A primary acoustic startle circuit: lesion and stimulation studies. J Neurosci 6:791–805Google Scholar
  53. De Felipe J (1997) Types of neurons, synaptic connections and chemical characteristics of cells immunoreactive for calbindin-D28K, parvalbumin and calretinin in the neocortex. J Chem Neuroanat 14:1–19Google Scholar
  54. De Villers-Sidani E, Alzghoul L, Zhou X, Simpson KL, Lin RC, Merzenich MM (2010) Recovery of functional and structural age-related changes in the rat primary auditory cortex with operant training. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:13900–13905PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Di Loreto JD, Cox C, Grover DA, Lazar E, del Cerro C, del Cerro M (1994) The influences of age, retinal topography, and gender on retinal degeneration in the Fischer 344 rat. Brain Res 647:181–191Google Scholar
  56. Dias R, Robbins TW, Roberts AC (1996) Dissociation in prefrontal cortex of affective and attentional shifts. Nature 380:69–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dickerson BC, Sperling RA (2008) Functional abnormalities of the medial temporal lobe memory system in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: Insights from functional MRI studies. Neuropsychologia 46:1624–1635PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ding N, Simon JZ (2012) Emergence of neural encoding of auditory objects while listening to competing speakers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:11854–11859PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Driscoll I, Hamilton DA, Petropoulos H, Yeo RA, Brooks WM, Baumgartner RN, Sutherland RJ (2003) The aging hippocampus: cognitive, biochemical and structural findings. Cereb Cortex 13:1344–1351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Du AT, Schuff N, Chao LL, Kornak J, Jagust WJ, Kramer JH, Reed BR, Miller BL, Norman D, Chui HC, Weiner MW (2006) Age effects on atrophy rates of entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Neurobiol Aging 27:733–740PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Eckert MA, Walczak A, Ahlstrom J, Denslow S, Horwitz A, Dubno JR (2008) Age-related effects on word recognition: reliance on cognitive control systems with structural declines in speech-responsive cortex. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 9:252–259PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Emir UE, Raatz S, McPherson S, Hodges JS, Torkelson C, Tawfik P, White T, Terpstra M (2011) Noninvasive quantification of ascorbate and glutathione concentration in the elderly human brain. NMR Biomed 24:888–894PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Engle JR, Recanzone GH (2013) Characterizing spatial tuning functions of neurons in the auditory cortex of young and aged monkeys: a new perspective on old data. Front Aging Neurosci 4:36PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Engle JR, Gray DT, Turner H, Udell JB, Recanzone GH (2014) Age-related neurochemical changes in the rhesus macaque inferior colliculus. Front Aging Neurosci 6:73PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Fanselow EE, Richardson KA, Connors BW (2008) Selective, state-dependent activation of somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in mouse neocortex. J Neurophysiol 100:2640–2652PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Felix RA 2nd, Portfors CV (2007) Excitatory, inhibitory and facilitatory frequency response areas in the inferior colliculus of hearing impaired mice. Hear Res 228:212–229PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fisher JP, Hartwich D, Seifert T, Olesen ND, McNulty CL, Nielsen HB, van Lieshout JJ, Secher NH (2013) Cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism during exercise in young and elderly individuals. J Physiol 591:1859–1870PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fitzgibbons PJ, Gordon-Salant S (1994) Age effects on measures of auditory duration discrimination. J Speech Hear Res 37:662–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fitzgibbons PJ, Gordon-Salant S (2001) Aging and temporal discrimination in auditory sequences. J Acoust Soc Am 109:2955–2963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Fitzgibbons PJ, Gordon-Salant S (2010) Age-related differences in discrimination of temporal intervals in accented tone sequences. Hear Res 264:41–47PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Fitzgibbons PJ, Gordon-Salant S, Barrett J (2007) Age-related differences in discrimination of an interval separating onsets of successive tone bursts as a function of interval duration. J Acoust Soc Am 122:458–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Frahm J, Kruger G, Merboldt KD, Kleinschmidt A (1996) Dynamic uncoupling and recoupling of perfusion and oxidative metabolism during focal brain activation in man. Magn Reson Med 35:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Fredrich M, Reisch A, Illing RB (2009) Neuronal subtype identity in the rat auditory brainstem as defined by molecular profile and axonal projection. Exp Brain Res 195:241–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Freund TF, Buzsáki G (1996) Interneurons of the hippocampus. Hippocampus 6:347–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Fries P, Schroder JH, Roelfsema PR, Singer W, Engel AK (2002) Oscillatory neuronal synchronization in primary visual cortex as a correlate of stimulus selection. J Neurosci 22:3739–3754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Frisina RD (2001) Subcortical neural coding mechanisms for auditory temporal processing. Hear Res 158:1–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Frisina RD (2010) Aging changes in the central auditory system. In: Rees A, Palmer A (eds) Handbook of auditory science: the auditory brain. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 415–436Google Scholar
  78. Frisina DR, Frisina RD (1997) Speech recognition in noise and presbycusis: relations to possible neural mechanisms. Hear Res 106:95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gai Y, Carney LH (2008) Influence of inhibitory inputs on rate and timing of responses in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 99:1077–1095PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Gao F, Edden RAE, Li MW, Puts NAJ, Wang GB, Liu C, Zhao B, Wang HQ, Bai X, Zhao C, Wang X, Barker PB (2013) Edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects an age-related decline in brain GABA levels. Neuroimage 78:75–82PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Garcia-Alloza M, Tsang SW, Gil-Bea FJ, Francis PT, Lai MK, Marcos B, Chen CP, Ramirez MJ (2006) Involvement of the GABAergic system in depressive symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 27:1110–1117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gates GA, Cobb JL, Linn RT, Rees T, Wolf PA, Dagostino RB (1996) Central auditory dysfunction, cognitive dysfunction, and dementia in older people. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 122:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Gates GA, Gibbons LE, McCusrry SM, Crane PK, Feeney MP, Larson EB (2010) Executive dysfunction and presbycusis in older persons with and without memory loss and dementia. Cogn Behav Neurol 23:218–223PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Geyer MA, Braff DL (1987) Startle habituation and sensorimotor gating in schizophrenia and related animal models. Schizophr Bull 13:643–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gleich O, Netz J, Strutz J (2014) Comparing the inferior colliculus of young and old gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with an emphasis on GABA. Exp Gerontol 57:155–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gonchar Y, Burkhalter A (1997) Three distinct families of GABAergic neurons in rat visual cortex. Cereb Cortex 7:347–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gonchar Y, Wang Q, Burkhalter A (2007) Multiple distinct subtypes of GABAergic neurons in mouse visual cortex identified by triple immunostaining. Front Neuroanat 1:1–11Google Scholar
  88. Gonoi W, Abe O, Yamasue H, Yamada H, Masutani Y, Takao H, Kasai K, Aoki S, Ohtomo K (2010) Age-related changes in regional brain volume evaluated by atlas-based method. Neuroradiology 52:865–873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Gordon-Salant S, Fitzgibbons PJ (1993) Temporal factors and speech recognition performance in young and elderly listeners. J Speech Hear Res 36:1276–1285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Gordon-Salant S, Yeni-Komshian GH, Fitzgibbons PJ (2010) Recognition of accented English in quiet and noise by younger and older listeners. J Acoust Soc Am 128:3152–3160PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Grachev ID, Apkarian AV (2001) Chemical network of the living human brain - evidence of reorganization with aging. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 11:185–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Grafton ST, Sumi SM, Stimac GK, Alvord EC, Shaw CM, Nochlin D (1991) Comparison of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging and neuropathologic findings in the cerebral white matter. Arch Neurol 48:293–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Gray DT, Engle JR, Recanzone GH (2013a) Age-related neurochemical changes in the rhesus macaque superior olivary complex. J Comp Neurol 522:573–591PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Gray DT, Rudolph ML, Engle JR, Recanzone GH (2013b) Parvalbumin increases in the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei of aged rhesus macaques. Front Aging Neurosci 5:69PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Gray DT, Engle JR, Recanzone GH (2014a) Age-related neurochemical changes in the rhesus macaque cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol 522:1527–1541PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Gray DT, Engle JR, Rudolph ML, Recanzone GH (2014b) Regional and age-related differences in GAD67 expression of parvalbumin- and calbindin-expressing neurons in the rhesus macaque auditory midbrain and brainstem. J Comp Neurol 522:4074–4084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Grimault N, Micheyl C, Carlyon RP, Arthaud P, Collet L (2000) Influence of peripheral resolvability on the perceptual segregation of harmonic complex tones differing in fundamental frequency. J Acoust Soc Am 108:263–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Grose JH, Mamo SK (2010) Processing of temporal fine structure as a function of age. Ear Hear 31:755–760PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Gruber S, Pinker K, Riederer F, Chmelik M, Stadlbauer A, Bittsansky M, Mlynarik V, Frey R, Serles W, Bodamer O, Moser E (2008) Metabolic changes in the normal ageing brain: consistent findings from short and long echo time proton spectroscopy. Eur J Radiol 68:320–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Gujar SK, Maheshwari S, Bjorkman-Burtscher I, Sundgren PC (2005) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Neuroophthalmol 25:217–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Guo XX, Skoog I, Idrizbegovic E, Pantoni L, Simoni M, Rosenhall U (2008) Hearing loss and cortical atrophy in a population-based study on non-demented women. Age Ageing 37:333–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Gutiérrez A, Khan ZU, Morris SJ, De Blas AL (1994) Age-related decrease of GABAA receptor subunits and glutamic acid decarboxylase in the rat inferior colliculus. J Neurosci 14:7469–7477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Harker KT, Whishaw IQ (2002) Place and matching-to-place spatial learning affected by rat inbreeding (Dark-Agouti, Fischer 344) and albinism (Wistar, Sprague–Dawley) but not domestication (wild rat vs. Long-Evans, Fischer-Norway). Behav Brain Res 134:467–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Harris KC, Eckert MA, Ahlstrom JB, Dubno JR (2010) Age-related differences in gap detection: effects of task difficulty and cognitive ability. Hear Res 264:21–29PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. He NJ, Dubno JR, Mills JH (1998) Frequency and intensity discrimination measured in a maximum-likelihood procedure from young and aged normal-hearing subjects. J Acoust Soc Am 103:553–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Helfert RH, Sommer TJ, Meeks J, Hofstetter P, Hughes LF (1999) Age-related synaptic changes in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of Fischer-344 rats. J Comp Neurol 406:285–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hendry SH, Schwark HD, Jones EG, Yan J (1987) Numbers and proportions of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in different areas of monkey cerebral cortex. J Neurosci 7:1503–1519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hickok G, Poeppel D (2007) Opinion - the cortical organization of speech processing. Nat Rev Neurosci 8:393–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hollen LI, Manser MB (2006) Ontogeny of alarm call responses in meerkats, Suricata suricatta: the roles of age, sex and nearby conspecifics. Anim Behav 72:1345–1353Google Scholar
  110. Hua T, Kao C, Sun Q, Li X, Zhou Y (2008) Decreased proportion of GABA neurons accompanies age-related degradation of neuronal function in cat striate cortex. Brain Res Bull 75:119–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hughes LF, Turner JG, Parrish JL, Caspary DM (2010) Processing of broadband stimuli across A1 layers in young and aged rats. Hear Res 264:79–85PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Humes LE, Dubno JR (2010) Factors affecting speech understanding in older adults. In: Gordon-Slant S, Frisina R, Popper AN, Fay RR (eds) The aging auditory system. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Humes LE, Dubno JR, Gordon-Salant S, Lister JJ, Cacace AT, Cruickshanks KJ, Gates GA, Wilson RH, Wingfield A (2012) Central presbycusis: a review and evaluation of the evidence. J Am Acad Audiol 23:635–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Husain FT, Medina RE, Davis CW, Szymko-Bennett Y, Simonyan K, Pajor NM, Horwitz B (2011) Neuroanatomical changes due to hearing loss and chronic tinnitus: a combined VBM and DTI study. Brain Res 1369:74–88PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Ibrahim I, Horacek J, Bartos A, Hajek M, Ripova D, Brunovsky M, Tintera J (2009) Combination of voxel based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroendocrinol Lett 30:39–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Idrizbegovic E, Canlon B, Bross LS, Willott JF, Bogdanovic N (2001) The total number of neurons and calcium binding protein positive neurons during aging in the cochlear nucleus of CBA/CaJ mice: a quantitative study. Hear Res 158:102–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Idrizbegovic E, Bogdanovic N, Viberg A, Canlon B (2003) Auditory peripheral influences on calcium binding protein immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus during aging in the C57BL/6J mouse. Hear Res 179:33–42Google Scholar
  118. Idrizbegovic E, Bogdanovic N, Willott JF, Canlon B (2004) Age-related increases in calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus of hearing impaired C57BL/6J mice. Neurobiol Aging 25:1085–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Idrizbegovic E, Salman H, Niu X, Canlon B (2006) Presbyacusis and calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus of BALB/c mice. Hear Res 216–217:198–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Irish M, Piguet O, Hodges JR, Hornberger M (2014) Common and unique gray matter correlates of episodic memory dysfunction in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Hum Brain Mapp 35:1422–1435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Jerger J, Jordan C (1992) Age-related asymmetry on a cued-listening task. Ear Hear 13:272–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Jernigan TL, Archibald SL, Fennema-Notestine C, Gamst AC, Stout JC, Bonner J, Hesselink JR (2001) Effects of age on tissues and regions of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Neurobiol Aging 22:581–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Jilek M, Suta D, Syka J (2014) Reference hearing thresholds in an extended frequency range as a function of age. J Acoust Soc Am 136:1821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Jinno S, Kosaka T (2002) Patterns of expression of calcium binding proteins and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in different populations of hippocampal GABAergic neurons in mice. J Comp Neurol 449:1–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Johnsson LG, Hawkins JE Jr (1972) Vascular changes in the human inner ear associated with aging. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 81:364–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Jones EG (2003) Chemically defined parallel pathways in the monkey auditory system. Ann N Y Acad Sci 999:218–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Joo HJ, Ma JY, Choo YG, Choi BK, Jung KY (1999) Age-related alteration of intracellular ATP maintenance in the cell suspensions of mice cerebral cortex. Mech Ageing Dev 110:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Juarez-Salinas DL, Engle JR, Navarro XO, Recanzone GH (2010) Hierarchical and serial processing in the spatial auditory cortical pathway is degraded by natural aging. J Neurosci 30:14795–14804PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kaiser LG, Schuff N, Cashdollar N, Weiner MW (2005) Age-related glutamate and glutamine concentration changes in normal human brain: H-1 MR spectroscopy study at 4T. Neurobiol Aging 26:665–672PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kamal B, Holman C, de Villers-Sidani E (2013) Shaping the aging brain: role of auditory input patterns in the emergence of auditory cortical impairments. Front Syst Neurosci 7:52PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kamba M, Inoue Y, Higami S, Suto Y (2003) Age-related changes in cerebral lactate metabolism in sleep-disordered breathing. Neurobiol Aging 24:753–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kantarci K (2013) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in common dementias. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 23:393–406PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kantarci K, Parisi JE, Dickson DW, Petersen RC, Boeve BF, Knopman DS, Edland SD, Smith GE, Ivnik RJ, Jack CR (2004) Myo-inositol/creatine ratio correlates with the neuropathological involvement in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 25:S372–S372Google Scholar
  134. Karas GB, Scheltens P, Rombouts S, Visser PJ, van Schijndel RA, Fox NC, Barkhof F (2004) Global and local gray matter loss in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroimage 23:708–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Karas G, Sluimer J, Goekoop R, van der Flier W, Rombouts S, Vrenken H, Scheltens P, Fox N, Barkhof F (2008) Amnestic mild cognitive impairment: structural MR imaging findings predictive of conversion to Alzheimer disease. Am J Neuroradiol 29:944–949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kawaguchi Y, Kubota Y (1997) GABAergic cell subtypes and their synaptic connections in rat frontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 7:476–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kelley P, Frisina RD, Zettel ML, Walton JP (1992) Differential calbindin immunoreactivity in the brainstem auditory system of the chinchilla. J Comp Neurol 320:196–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Kerlin JR, Shahin AJ, Miller LM (2010) Attentional gain control ofongoing cortical speech representations in a ‘‘cocktail party’’. J Neurosci30:620–628Google Scholar
  139. Kim DJ, Park SY, Kim J, Lee DH, Park HJ (2009) Alterations of white matter diffusion anisotropy in early deafness. Neuroreport 20:1032–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Kirov II, Fleysher L, Fleysher R, Patil V, Liu S, Gonen O (2008) Age dependence of regional proton metabolites T-2 relaxation times in the human brain at 3T. Magn Reson Med 60:790–795PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Klug A, Bauer EE, Hanson JT, Hurley L, Meitzen J, Pollak GD (2002) Response selectivity for species-specific calls in the inferior colliculus of Mexican free-tailed bats is generated by inhibition. J Neurophysiol 88:1941–1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Koch M (1999) The neurobiology of startle. Prog Neurobiol 59:107–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Kochunov P, Thompson PM, Lancaster JL, Bartzokis G, Smith S, Coyle T, Royall DR, Laird A, Fox PT (2007) Relationship between white matter fractional anisotropy and other indices of cerebral health in normal aging: tract-based spatial statistics study of aging. Neuroimage 35:478–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kral A, Tillein J, Heid S, Hartmann R, Klinke R (2005) Postnatal cortical development in congenital auditory deprivation. Cereb Cortex 15:552–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Krenning J, Hughes LF, Caspary DM, Helfert RH (1998) Age-related glycine receptor subunit changes in the cochlear nucleus of Fischer-344 rats. Laryngoscope 108:26–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Kubota Y, Hattori R, Yui Y (1994) Three distinct subpopulations of GABA-ergic neurons in rat frontal agranular cortex. Brain Res 649:159–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Kuwabara T, Watanabe H, Tsuji S, Yuasa T (1995) Lactate rise in the basal ganglia accompanying finger movements: a localized 1H-MRS study. Brain Res 670:326–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Laplante-Levesque A, Hickson L, Worrall L (2010) Rehabilitation of older adults with hearing impairment: a critical review. J Aging Health 22:143–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Leary SM, Brex PA, MacManus DG, Parker GJM, Barker GJ, Miller DH, Thompson AJ (2000) A H-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of aging in parietal white matter: implications for trials in multiple sclerosis. Magn Reson Imaging 18:455–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Lee JE, Park HJ, Song SK, Sohn YH, Lee JD, Lee PH (2010) Neuroanatomic basis of amnestic MCI differs in patients with and without Parkinson disease. Neurology 75:2009–2016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Lemaitre H, Goldman AL, Sambataro F, Verchinski BA, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Weinberger DR, Mattay VS (2012) Normal age-related brain morphometric changes: nonuniformity across cortical thickness, surface area and gray matter volume? Neurobiol Aging 33:617.e1–9Google Scholar
  152. Leventhal AG, Wang Y, Pu M, Zhou Y, Ma Y (2003) GABA and its agonists improved visual cortical function in senescent monkeys. Science 300:812–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Li WJ, Li JH, Xian JF, Lv B, Li M, Wang CH, Li Y, Liu ZH, Liu S, Wang ZC, He HG, Sabel BA (2013) Alterations of grey matter asymmetries in adolescents with prelingual deafness: a combined VBM and cortical thickness analysis. Restor Neurol Neurosci 31:1–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Lin Y, Wang J, Wu C, Wai Y, Yu J, Ng S (2008) Diffusion tensor imaging of the auditory pathway in sensorineural hearing loss: changes in radial diffusivity and diffusion anisotropy. J Magn Reson Imaging 28:598–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Lin FR, Thorpe R, Gordon-Salant S, Ferrucci L (2011) Hearing loss prevalence and risk factors among older adults in the United States. J Gerontol A 66:582–590Google Scholar
  156. Lin JFL, Imada T, Kuhl PK (2012) Mental addition in bilinguals: An fMRI study of task-related and performance-related activation. Cereb Cortex 22:1851–1861PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Ling LL, Hughes LF, Caspary DM (2005) Age-related loss of the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase in rat primary auditory cortex. Neuroscience 132:1103–1113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Litovsky RY, Delgutte B (2002) Neural correlates of the precedence effect in the inferior colliculus: effect of localization cues. J Neurophysiol 87:976–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Lohmann C, Friauf E (1996) Distribution of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin and calretinin in the auditory brainstem of adult and developing rats. J Comp Neurol 367:90–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Lutz J, Hemminger F, Stahl R, Dietrich O, Hempel M, Reiser M, Jager L (2007) Evidence of subcortical and cortical aging of the acoustic pathway: a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study. Acad Radiol 14:692–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Madden DJ, Bennett IJ, Burzynska A, Potter GG, Chen NK, Song AW (2012) Diffusion tensor imaging of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging. Biochim Biophys Acta 1822:386–400PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Madsen PL, Cruz NF, Sokoloff L, Dienel GA (1999) Cerebral oxygen/glucose ratio is low during sensory stimulation and rises above normal during recovery: excess glucose consumption during stimulation is not accounted for by lactate efflux from or accumulation in brain tissue. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 19:393–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Maillet D, Rajah MN (2013) Association between prefrontal activity and volume change in prefrontal and medial temporal lobes in aging and dementia: a review. Ageing Res Rev 12:479–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Manly JJ, Touradji P, Tang MX, Stern Y (2003) Literacy and memory decline among ethnically diverse elders. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 25:680–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Manschot SM, Brands AMA, van der Grond J, Kessels RPC, Algra A, Kappelle LJ, Biessels GJ, Utrecht Diabetic Encephalopathy S (2006) Brain magnetic resonance imaging correlates of impaired cognition in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 55:1106–1113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Markram H, Toledo-Rodriguez M, Wang Y, Gupta A, Silberberg G, Wu C (2004) Interneurons of the neocortical inhibitory system. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:793–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Martin del Campo HN, Measor KR, Razak KA (2012) Parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the auditory cortex of a mouse model of presbycusis. Hear Res 294:31–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Martin JS, Jerger JF (2005) Some effects of aging on central auditory processing. J Rehabil Res Dev 42:25–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Martinez-Bisbal MC, Celda B (2009) Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the study of human brain cancer. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 53:618–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Mazelová J, Popelar J, Syka J (2003) Auditory function in presbycusis: peripheral vs. central changes. Exp Gerontol 38:87–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. McCormick DA (1989) GABA as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in human cerebral cortex. J Neurophysiol 62:1018–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. McIntyre DJO, Charlton RA, Markus HS, Howe FA (2007) Long and short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic Imaging of the healthy aging brain. J Magn Reson Imaging 26:1596–1606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Merchán M, Aguilar LA, Lopez-Poveda EA, Malmierca MS (2005) The inferior colliculus of the rat: quantitative immunocytochemical study of GABA and glycine. Neuroscience 136:907–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Merrill DA, Chiba AA, Tuszynski MH (2001) Conservation of neuronal number and size in the entorhinal cortex of behaviorally characterized aged rats. J Comp Neurol 438:445–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Miao W, Li J, Tang M, Xian J, Li W, Liu Z, Liu S, Sabel BA, Wang Z, He H (2013) Altered white matter integrity in adolescents with prelingual deafness: a high-resolution tract-based spatial statistics imaging study. Am J Neuroradiol 34:1264–1270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Milbrandt JC, Albin RL, Caspary DM (1994) Age-related decrease in GABAB receptor binding in the Fischer 344 rat inferior colliculus. Neurobiol Aging 15:699–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Milbrandt JC, Hunter C, Caspary DM (1997) Alterations of GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels in the aging Fisher 344 rat inferior colliculus neurons. J Comp Neurol 379:455–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Milham MP, Erickson KI, Banich MT, Kramer AF, Webb A, Wszalek T, Cohen NJ (2002) Attentional control in the aging brain: insights from an fMRI study of the stroop task. Brain Cogn 49:277–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Moffat SD, Elkins W, Resnick SM (2006) Age differences in the neural systems supporting human allocentric spatial navigation. Neurobiol Aging 27:965–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Moore BCJ, Glasberg BR (1988) Gap detection with sinusoids and noise in normal, impaired, and electrically stimulated ears. J Acoust Soc Am 83:1093–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Muller M, Appelman APA, van der Graaf Y, Vincken KL, Mali W, Geerlings MI, Grp SS (2011) Brain atrophy and cognition: Interaction with cerebrovascular pathology? Neurobiol Aging 32:885–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Munoz-Ruiz MA, Hartikainen P, Koikkalainen J, Wolz R, Julkunen V, Niskanen E, Herukka SK, Kivipelto M, Vanninen R, Rueckert D, Liu YW, Lotjonen J, Soininen H (2012) Structural MRI in frontotemporal dementia: comparisons between hippocampal volumetry, tensor-based morphometry and voxel-based morphometry. PLoS ONE 7:e52531PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Mutter SA, Haggbloom SJ, Plumlee LF, Schirmer AR (2006) Aging, working memory, and discrimination learning. Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 59:1556–1566Google Scholar
  184. Narayan R, Ergün A, Sen K (2005) Delayed inhibition in cortical receptive fields and the discrimination of complex stimuli. J Neurophysiol 94:2970–2975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Nodal FR, López DE (2003) Direct input from cochlear root neurons to pontine reticulospinal neurons in albino rat. J Comp Neurol 460:80–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Oliver DL, Winer JA, Beckius GE, Saint Marie RL (1994) Morphology of GABAergic neurons in the inferior colliculus of the cat. J Comp Neurol 340:27–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Oliver DL, Izquierdo MA, Malmierca MS (2011) Persistent effects of early augmented acoustic environment on the auditory brainstem. Neuroscience 184:75–87PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. O’Neill WE, Zettel ML, Whittemore KR, Frisina RD (1997) Calbindin D-28k immunoreactivity in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body declines with age in C57BL/6, but not CBA/CaJ, mice. Hear Res 112:158–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Ouda L, Syka J (2012) Immunocytochemical profiles of inferior colliculus neurons in the rat and their changes with aging. Front Neural Circ 6:68Google Scholar
  190. Ouda L, Druga R, Syka J (2008) Changes in parvalbumin immunoreactivity with aging in the central auditory system of the rat. Exp Gerontol 43:782–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Ouda L, Burianova J, Syka J (2012) Age-related changes in calbindin and calretinin immunoreactivity in the central auditory system of the rat. Exp Gerontol 47:497–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Ouellet L, de Villers-Sidani E (2014) Trajectory of the main GABAergic interneuron populations from early development to old age in the rat primary auditory cortex. Front Neuroanat 8:40PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Pakkenberg B, Gundersen HJ (1997) Neocortical neuron number in humans: effect of sex and age. J Comp Neurol 384:312–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Pakkenberg B, Pelvig D, Marner L, Bundgaard MJ, Gundersen HJG, Nyengaard JR, Regeur L (2003) Aging and the human neocortex. Exp Gerontol 38:95–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Palombi PS, Caspary DM (1996) Physiology of the aged Fischer 344 ratinferior colliculus: responses to contralateral monaural stimuli. J Neurophysiol 5:3114–3121Google Scholar
  196. Parham K (1997) Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the C57BL/6J mouse model of age-related hearing loss. Hear Res 112:216–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Pecka M, Zahn TP, Saunier-Rebori B, Siveke I, Felmy F, Wiegrebe L, Klug A, Pollak GD, Grothe B (2007) Inhibiting the inhibition: a neuronal network for sound localization in reverberant environments. J Neurosci 27:1782–1790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pekkonen E (2000) Mismatch negativity in aging and in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Audiol Neuro Otol 5:216–224Google Scholar
  199. Penhune VB, Cismaru R, Dorsaint-Pierre R, Petitto LA, Zatorre RJ (2003) The morphometry of auditory cortex in the congenitally deaf measured using MRI. Neuroimage 20:1215–1225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Persad CC, Abeles N, Zacks RT, Denburg NL (2002) Inhibitory changes after age 60 and their relationship to measures of attention and memory. J Gerontol B 57:P223–P232Google Scholar
  201. Peters CA, Potter JF, Scholer SG (1988) Hearing impairment as a predictor of cognitive decline in dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 36:981–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Peters A, Sethares C, Moss MB (1998) The effects of aging on layer 1 in area 46 of prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey. Cereb Cortex 8:671–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Pfefferbaum A, Adalsteinsson E, Spielman D, Sullivan EV, Lim KO (1999) In vivo spectroscopic quantification of the N-acetyl moiety, creatine, and choline from large volumes of brain gray and white matter: effects of normal aging. Magn Reson Med 41:276–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV, Carmelli D (2004) Morphological changes in aging brain structures are differentially affected by time-linked environmental influences despite strong genetic stability. Neurobiol Aging 25:175–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Poe BH, Linville C, Brunso-Bechtold J (2001) Age-related decline of presumptive inhibitory synapses in the sensorimotor cortex as revealed by the physical disector. J Comp Neurol 406:285–298Google Scholar
  206. Popelar J, Groh D, Mazelova J, Syka J (2003) Cochlear function in young and adult Fischer 344 rats. Hear Res 186:75–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Popelar J, Groh D, Pelanova J, Canlon B, Syka J (2006) Age-related changes in cochlear and brainstem auditory functions in Fischer 344 rats. Neurobiol Aging 27:490–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Portfors CV, Wenstrup JJ (2001) Topographical distribution of delay-tuned responses in the mustached bat inferior colliculus. Hear Res 151:95–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Prieto JJ, Peterson BA, Winer JA (1994a) Morphology and spatial distribution of GABAergic neurons in cat primary auditory cortex (AI). J Comp Neurol 344:349–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Prieto JJ, Peterson BA, Winer JA (1994b) Laminar distribution and neuronal targets of GABAergic axon terminals in cat primary auditory cortex (AI). J Comp Neurol 344:383–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Profant O, Balogová Z, Dezortová M, Wagnerová D, Hájek M, Syka J (2013) Metabolic changes in the auditory cortex in presbycusis demonstrated by MR spectroscopy. Exp Gerontol 48:795–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Profant O, Skoch A, Balogová Z, Tintěra J, Hlinka J, Syka J (2014a) Diffusion tensor imaging and MR morphometry of the central auditory pathway and auditory cortex in aging. Neuroscience 260:87–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Profant O, Tintěra J, Balogová Z, Ibrahim I, Jilek M, Syka J (2014b) Functional changes in the human auditory cortex in ageing. PLoS ONE (in press)Google Scholar
  214. Puts NAJ, Edden RAE (2012) In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of GABA: a methodological review. Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 60:29–41PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Puts NAJ, Edden RAE, Evans CJ, McGlone F, McGonigle DJ (2011) Regionally specific human GABA concentration correlates with tactile discrimination thresholds. J Neurosci 31:16556–16560PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Qiu CX, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L (2005) The age-dependent relation of blood pressure to cognitive function and dementia. Lancet Neurol 4:487–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Radvansky GA, Dijkstra K (2007) Aging and situation model processing. Psychon Bull Rev 14:1027–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Raji CA, Lopez OL, Kuller LH, Carmichael OT, Longstreth WT, Gach HM, Boardman J, Bernick CB, Thompson PM, Becker JT (2012) White matter lesions and brain gray matter volume in cognitively normal elders. Neurobiol Aging 33:834.e7–834.e16Google Scholar
  219. Raz N, Lindenberger U, Rodrigue KM, Kennedy KM, Head D, Williamson A, Dahle C, Gerstorf D, Acker JD (2005) Regional brain changes in aging healthy adults: general trends, individual differences and modifiers. Cereb Cortex 15:1676–1689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Raz N, Rodrigue KM, Kennedy KM, Acker JD (2007) Vascular health and longitudinal changes in brain and cognition in middle-aged and older adults. Neuropsychology 21:149–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Raza A, Milbrandt JC, Arneric SP, Caspary DM (1994) Age-related changes in brainstem auditory neurotransmitters: measures of GABA and acetylcholine function. Hear Res 77:221–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Reyngoudt H, Claeys T, Vlerick L, Verleden S, Acou M, Deblaere K, De Deene Y, Audenaert K, Goethals I, Achten E (2012) Age-related differences in metabolites in the posterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of normal ageing brain: a H-1-MRS study. Eur J Radiol 81:E223–E231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Richards TL, Gates GA, Gardner JC, Merrill T, Hayes CE, Panagiotides H, Serafini S, Rubel EW (1997) Functional MR spectroscopy of the auditory cortex in healthy subjects and patients with sudden hearing loss. Am J Neuroradiol 18:611–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Richardson BD, Ling LL, Uteshev VV, Caspary DM (2011) Extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors and tonic inhibition in rat auditory thalamus. PLoS ONE 6:e16508PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Rodriguez-Aranda C, Martinussen M (2006) Age-related differences in performance of phonemic verbal fluency measured by controlled oral word association task (COWAT): a meta-analytic study. Dev Neuropsychol 30:697–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Ross AJ, Sachdev PS, Wen W, Valenzuela MJ, Brodaty H (2005) Cognitive correlates of H-1 MRS measures in the healthy elderly brain. Brain Res Bull 66:9–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Ross JM, Öberg J, Brené S, Coppotelli G, Terzioglu M, Pernold K, Goiny M, Sitnikov R, Kehr J, Trifunovic A, Larsson NG, Hoffer BJ, Olson L (2010) High brain lactate is a hallmark of aging and caused by a shift in the lactate dehydrogenase A/B ratio. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20087–20092PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Roth TN, Hanebuth D, Probst R (2011) Prevalence of age-related hearing loss in Europe: a review. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 268:1101–1107PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Rudy B, Fishell G, Lee S, Hjerling-Leffler J (2011) Three groups of interneurons account for nearly 100 % of neocortical GABAergic neurons. Dev Neurobiol 71:45–61PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Rybalko N, Suta D, Nwabueze-Ogbo F, Syka J (2006) Effect of auditory cortex lesions on the discrimination of frequency-modulated tones in rats. Eur J Neurosci 23:1614–1622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Rybalko N, Suta D, Popelár J, Syka J (2010) Inactivation of the left auditory cortex impairs temporal discrimination in the rat. Behav Brain Res 209:123–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Rybalko N, Bureš Z, Burianová J, Popelář J, Poon PW, Syka J (2012) Age-related changes in the acoustic startle reflex in Fischer 344 and Long Evans rats. Exp Gerontol 47:966–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Scheltens P, Barkhof F, Leys D, Wolters EC, Ravid R, Kamphorst W (1995) Histopathologic correlates of white matter changes on MRI in Alzheimer’s disease and normal aging. Neurology 45:883–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Schmidt R, Schmidt H, Fazekas F (2000) Vascular risk factors in dementia. J Neurol 247:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Schmidt S, Redecker C, Bruehl C, Witte OW (2008) Age-related decline of functional inhibition in rat cortex. Neurobiol Aging 31:504–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Schmolesky MT, Wang Y, Pu M, Leventhal AG (2000) Degradation of stimulus selectivity of visual cortical cells in senescent rhesus monkeys. Nat Neurosci 3:384–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Schneider BA, Pichora-Fuller K, Daneman M (2010) Effects of senescent changes in audition and cognition on spoken language comprehension. In: Gordon-Slant S, Frisina R, Popper AN, Fay RR (eds) The aging auditory system. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  238. Schonwiesner M, Krumbholz K, Rubsamen R, Fink GR, von Cramon DY (2007) Hemispheric asymmetry for auditory processing in the human auditory brain stem, thalamus, and cortex. Cereb Cortex 17:492–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Schubert F, Gallinat J, Seifert F, Rinneberg H (2004) Glutamate concentrations in human brain using single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla. Neuroimage 21:1762–1771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Schuff N, Ezekiel F, Gamst AC, Amend DL, Capizzano AA, Maudsley AA, Weiner MW (2001) Region and tissue differences of metabolites in normally aged brain using multislice 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Magn Reson Med 45:899–907PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Schuknecht HF (1974) Pathology of the Ear. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  242. Schwaller B (2010) Cytosolic Ca2+ buffers. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a004051PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Schwaller B, Meyer M, Schiffmann S (2002) ‘New’ functions for ‘old’ proteins: the role of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k, calretinin and parvalbumin, in cerebellar physiology. Studies with knockout mice. Cerebellum 1:241–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Seifert T, Secher NH (2011) Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans. Prog Neurobiol 95:406–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Shamy JLT, Buonocore MH, Makaron LM, Amaral DG, Barnes CA, Rapp PR (2006) Hippocampal volume is preserved and fails to predict recognition memory impairment in aged rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Neurobiol Aging 27:1405–1415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Shamy JL, Habeck C, Hof PR, Amaral DG, Fong SG, Buonocore MH, Stern Y, Barnes CA, Rapp PR (2011) Volumetric correlates of spatiotemporal working and recognition memory impairment in aged rhesus monkeys. Cereb Cortex 21:1559–1573PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Sharma V, Nag TC, Wadhwa S, Roy TS (2009) Stereological investigation and expression of calcium-binding proteins in developing human inferior colliculus. J Chem Neuroanat 37:78–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Sharp DJ, Scott SK, Mehra MA, Wise RJS (2006) The neural correlates of declining performance with age: evidence for age-related changes in cognitive control. Cereb Cortex 16:1739–1749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Sheppard JP, Wang JP, Wong PCM (2011) Large-scale cortical functional organization and speech perception across the lifespan. PLoS ONE 6:e16510PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Shinno H, Inagaki T, Miyaoka T, Okazaki S, Kawamukai T, Utani E, Inami Y, Horiguchi J (2007) A decrease in N-acetylaspartate and an increase in myoinositol in the anterior cingulate gyrus are associated with behavioral and psychological symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Sci 260:132–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Silberberg G, Markram H (2007) Disynaptic inhibition between neocortical pyramidal cells mediated by Martinotti cells. Neuron 53:735–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Simon H, Frisina RD, Walton JP (2004) Age reduces response latency of mouse inferior colliculus neurons to AM sounds. J Acoust Soc Am 116:469–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Sisneros JA, Bass AH (2005) Ontogenetic changes in the response properties of individual, primary auditory afferents in the vocal plainfin midshipman fish Porichthys notatus Girard. J Exp Biol 208:3121–3131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Smith KM, Mecoli MD, Altaye M, Komlos M, Maitra R, Eaton KP, Egelhoff JC, Holland SK (2011) Morphometric differences in the heschl’s gyrus of hearing impaired and normal hearing infants. Cereb Cortex 21:991–998PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Snell KB, Frisina DR (2000) Relationships among age-related differences in gap detection and word recognition. J Acoust Soc Am 107:1615–1626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Somogyi P, Tamas G, Lujan R, Buhl EH (1998) Salient features of synaptic organisation in the cerebral cortex. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 26:113–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Spongr VP, Flood DG, Frisina RD, Salvi RJ (1997) Quantitative measures of hair cell loss in CBA and C57BL/6 mice throughout their life spans. J Acoust Soc Am 101:3546–3553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Stanley DP, Shetty AK (2004) Aging in the rat hippocampus is associated with widespread reductions in the number of glutamate decarboxylase-67 positive interneurons but not interneuron degeneration. J Neurochem 89:204–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Stanley EM, Fadel JR, Mott DD (2012) Interneuron loss reduces dendritic inhibition and GABA release in hippocampus of aged rats. Neurobiol Aging 33:431e1–431e13Google Scholar
  260. Sullivan EV, Pfefferbaum A (2007) Neuroradiological characterization of normal adult ageing. Br J Radiol 80:S99–S108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Sullivan EV, Adalsteinsson E, Hedehus M, Ju C, Moseley M, Lim KO, Pfefferbaum A (2001) Equivalent disruption of regional white matter microstructure in ageing healthy men and women. Neuroreport 12:99–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Sullivan EV, Marsh L, Pfefferbaum A (2005) Preservation of hippocampal volume throughout adulthood in healthy men and women. Neurobiol Aging 26:1093–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Sumner P, Edden RAE, Bompas A, Evans CJ, Singh KD (2010) More GABA, less distraction: a neurochemical predictor of motor decision speed. Nat Neurosci 13:825–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Suta D, Rybalko N, Pelánová J, Popelář J, Syka J (2011) Age-related changes in auditory temporal processing in the rat. Exp Gerontol 46:739–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Swerdlow NR, Geyer MA, Braff DL (2001) Neural circuit regulation of prepulse inhibition of startle in the rat: current knowledge and future challenges. Psychopharmacology 156:194–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Syka J (2002) Plastic changes in the central auditory system after hearing loss, restoration of function, and during learning. Physiol Rev 82:601–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Syka J (2010) The Fischer 344 rat as a model of presbycusis. Hear Res 264:70–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Tadros SF, Frisina ST, Mapes F, Kim S, Frisina DR, Frisina RD (2005) Loss of peripheral right-ear advantage in age-related hearing loss. Audiol Neuro Otol 10:44–52Google Scholar
  269. Takahashi T, Murata T, Omori M, Kosaka H, Takahashi K, Yonekura Y, Wada Y (2004) Quantitative evaluation of age-related white matter microstructural changes on MRI by multifractal analysis. J Neurol Sci 225:33–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Taki Y, Thyreau B, Kinomura S, Sato K, Goto R, Wu K, Kawashima R, Fukuda H (2013) A longitudinal study of age- and gender-related annual rate of volume changes in regional gray matter in healthy adults. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2292–2301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Tardif E, Chiry O, Probst A, Magistretti PJ, Clarke S (2003) Patterns of calcium-binding proteins in human inferior colliculus: identification of subdivisions and evidence for putative parallel systems. Neuroscience 116:1111–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Toescu EC, Verkhratsky A, Landfield PW (2004) Ca2+ regulation and gene expression in normal brain aging. Trends Neurosci 27:614–620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Tramo MJ, Cariani PA, Koh CK, Makris N, Braida LD (2005) Neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of pitch perception: auditory cortex. Neurosciences and music Ii: from perception to performance. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1060:148–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Tremblay KL, Piskosz M, Souza P (2003) Effects of age and age-related hearing loss on the neural representation of speech cues. Clin Neurophysiol 114:1332–1343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Tremblay MÈ, Zettel ML, Ison JR, Allen PD, Majewska AK (2012) Effects of aging and sensory loss on glial cells in mouse visual and auditory cortices. Glia 60:541–558PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Tucker-Drob EM (2011) Neurocognitive functions and everyday functions change together in old age. Neuropsychology 25:368–377PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Turner JG, Hughes LF, Caspary DM (2005a) Effects of aging on receptive fields in rat primary auditory cortex layer V neurons. J Neurophysiol 94:2738–2747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Turner JG, Hughes LF, Caspary DM (2005b) Divergent response properties of layer-V neurons in rat primary auditory cortex. Hear Res 202:129–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Turrigiano GG, Nelson SB (2004) Homeostatic plasticity in the developing nervous system. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:97–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Urrila AS, Hakkarainen A, Heikkinen S, Vuori K, Stenberg D, Hakkinen AM, Lundbom N, Porkka-Heiskanen T (2003) Metabolic imaging of human cognition: an fMRI/H-1-MRS study of brain lactate response to silent word generation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23:942–948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Valenzuela MJ, Sachdev P (2001) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in AD. Neurology 56:592–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Vater M, Habbicht H, Kössl M, Grothe B (1992) The functional role of GABA and glycine in monaural and binaural processing in the inferior colliculus of horseshoe bats. J Comp Physiol A 171:541–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Vela J, Gutierrez A, Vitorica J, Ruano D (2003) Rat hippocampal GABAergic molecular markers are differentially affected by ageing. J Neurochem 85:368–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Verkhratsky A, Toescu EC (1998) Calcium and neuronal ageing. Trends Neurosci 21:2–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Vongpoisal T, Pichora-Fuller MK (2007) Effect of age on F-0 difference limen and concurrent vowel identification. J Speech Lang Hear Res 50:1139–1156Google Scholar
  286. Waldman ADB, Rai GS, McConnell JR, Chaudry M, Grant D (2002) Clinical brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for management of Alzheimer’s and sub-cortical ischemic vascular dementia in older people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 35:137–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Walhovd KB, Fjell AM, Reinvang I, Lundervold A, Dale AM, Eilertsen DE, Quinn BT, Salat D, Makris N, Fischl B (2005) Effects of age on volumes of cortex, white matter and subcortical structures. Neurobiol Aging 26:1261–1270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Walton JP (2010) Timing is everything: temporal processing deficits in the aged auditory brainstem. Hear Res 264:63–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Walton JP, Frisina RD, Ison JE, O’Neill WE (1997) Neural correlates of behavioral gap detection in the inferior colliculus of the young CBA mouse. J Comp Physiol A 181:161–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Walton JP, Frisina RD, O’Neill WE (1998) Age-related alteration in processing of temporal sound features in the auditory midbrain of the CBA mouse. J Neurosci 18:2764–2776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Walton JP, Simon H, Frisina RD (2002) Age-related alterations in the neural coding of envelope periodicities. J Neurophysiol 88:565–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Wang ZQ, Guo XJ, Qi ZG, Yao L, Li KC (2010) Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment. Eur J Radiol 75:129–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Weaver KE, Richards TL, Saenz M, Petropoulos H, Fine I (2013) Neurochemical changes within human early blind occipital cortex. Neuroscience 252:222–233PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Webster DB, Webster M (1971) Adaptive value of hearing and vision in kangaroo rat predator avoidance. Brain Behav Evol 4:310–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Wetzel W, Wagner T, Ohl FW, Scheich H (1998) Categorical discrimination of direction in frequency-modulated tones by Mongolian gerbils. Behav Brain Res 91:29–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Willott JF (1991) Aging and the auditory system. Singular, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  297. Willott JF, Milbrandt JC, Bross LS, Caspary DM (1997) Glycine immunoreactivity and receptor binding in the cochlear nucleus of C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ mice: effects of cochlear impairment and aging. J Comp Neurol 385:405–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Winer JA, Larue DT (1996) Evolution of GABAergic circuitry in the mammalian medial geniculate body. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:3083–3087PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Wong PCM, Uppunda AK, Parrish TB, Dhar S (2008) Cortical mechanisms of speech perception in noise. J Speech Lang Hear Res 51:1026–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Wong PCM, Jin JXM, Gunasekera GM, Abel R, Lee ER, Dhar S (2009) Aging and cortical mechanisms of speech perception in noise. Neuropsychologia 47:693–703PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Wong PCM, Ettlinger M, Sheppard JP, Gunasekera GM, Dhar S (2010) Neuroanatomical characteristics and speech perception in noise in older adults. Ear Hear 31:471–479PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Woods TM, Lopez SE, Long JH, Rahman JE, Recanzone GH (2006) Effects of stimulus azimuth and intensity on the single-neuron activity in the auditory cortex of the alert macaque monkey. J Neurophysiol 96:3323–3337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Wu CM, Ng SH, Wang JJ, Liu TC (2009) Diffusion tensor imaging of the subcortical auditory tract in subjects with congenital cochlear nerve deficiency. Am J Neuroradiol 30:1773–1777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Yan J, Suga N (1996) The midbrain creates and the thalamus sharpens echodelay tuning for the cortical representation of target-distance information in the mustached bat. Hear Res 93:102–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Yildiz-Yesiloglu A, Ankerst DP (2006) Neurochemical alterations of the brain in bipolar disorder and their implications for pathophysiology: a systematic review of the in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 30:969–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Yuan K, Shih JY, Winer JA, Schreiner CE (2011) Functional networks of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in cat auditory cortex. J Neurosci 31:13333–13342PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Zaehle T, Wustenberg T, Meyer M, Jancke L (2004) Evidence for rapid auditory perception as the foundation of speech processing: a sparse temporal sampling fMRI study. Eur J Neurosci 20:2447–2456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Zarow C, Vinters HV, Ellis WG, Weiner MW, Mungas D, White L, Chui HC (2005) Correlates of hippocampal neuron number in Alzheimer’s disease and ischemic vascular dementia. Ann Neurol 57:896–903PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Zettel ML, Frisina RD, Haider SE, O’Neill WE (1997) Age-related changes in calbindin D-28k and calretinin immunoreactivity in the inferior colliculus of CBA/CaJ and C57Bl/6 mice. J Comp Neurol 386:92–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Zettel ML, O’Neill WE, Trang TT, Frisina RD (2001) Early bilateral deafening prevents calretinin up-regulation in the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus of aged CBA/CaJ mice. Hear Res 158:131–138PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Auditory Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental MedicineAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles UniversityUniversity Hospital MotolPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations