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Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 359, Issue 1, pp 255–265 | Cite as

The synaptic proteome

  • Melanie Laßek
  • Jens Weingarten
  • Walter VolknandtEmail author
Review

Abstract

Synapses are focal hot spots for signal transduction and plasticity in the brain. A synapse comprises an axon terminus, the presynapse, the synaptic cleft containing extracellular matrix proteins as well as adhesion molecules, and the postsynaptic density as target structure for chemical signaling. The proteomes of the presynaptic and postsynaptic active zones control neurotransmitter release and perception. These tasks demand short- and long-term structural and functional dynamics of the synapse mediated by its proteinaceous inventory. This review addresses subcellular fractionation protocols and the related proteomic approaches to the various synaptic subcompartments with an emphasis on the presynaptic active zone (PAZ). Furthermore, it discusses major constituents of the PAZ including the amyloid precursor protein family members. Numerous proteins regulating the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton are indicative of the functional and structural dynamics of the pre- and postsynapse. The identification of protein candidates of the synapse provides the basis for further analyzing the interaction of synaptic proteins with their targets, and the effect of their deletion opens novel insights into the functional role of these proteins in neuronal communication. The knowledge of the molecular interactome is also a prerequisite for understanding numerous neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords

Postsynaptic active zone Presynaptic active zone Proteome Synapse Transsynaptic signaling 

Abbreviations

CAZ

Cytomatrix assembled at the active zone

PAZ

Presynaptic active zone

PPM

Presynaptic plasma membrane

PSD

Postsynaptic density

Notes

Acknowledgment

We thank Dr. Herbert Zimmermann for helpful comments.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melanie Laßek
    • 1
  • Jens Weingarten
    • 1
  • Walter Volknandt
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Molecular and Cellular NeurobiologyGoethe UniversityFrankfurtGermany

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