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Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 356, Issue 3, pp 657–664 | Cite as

Aberrant DNA methylation of microRNA genes in human breast cancer – a critical appraisal

  • Ulrich Lehmann
Review

Abstract

Aberrant DNA methylation of regulatory sequences is a well-documented mechanism of functional deletion of genes with anti-tumourigenic properties including microRNAs. This review discusses the publications describing aberrant methylation of microRNA genes in human breast cancer cells. Among the anti-tumourigenic properties of epigenetically inactivated microRNA genes, the inhibition of proliferation and of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are the best studied. Several studies are conceptually very interesting and present a comprehensive functional characterization of anti-tumorigenic microRNAs. The link between microRNA expression and gene methylation is not addressed directly by all studies and a number of studies are limited in their strength by not including primary breast cancer specimens or by analysing very small sets of primary human specimens. The publications cover a wide range of DNA methylation detection techniques, often making direct comparison of results challenging. Despite the identification and thorough characterization of many interesting candidates and functionally important microRNA genes affected by DNA methylation, the translation of microRNA gene methylation as a new biomarker into the daily routine practice has not yet worked out.

Keywords

microRNA DNA methylation Breast cancer Human Epigenetics 

Abbreviations

EMT

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

HMEC

Human mammary epithelial cells

HMF

Human mammary fibroblasts

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cells

MSP

Methylation-specific PCR

Notes

Acknowledgment

The author would like to thank, as always, Britta Hasemeier for indispensable help with Fig. 1.

Supplementary material

441_2014_1793_MOESM1_ESM.doc (29 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 29 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PathologyMedizinische Hochschule HannoverHannoverGermany

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