Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 354, Issue 3, pp 729–741 | Cite as

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) influences adrenal development and response to cold stress in resulting mice

  • Yan Zeng
  • Zhuo Lv
  • Leilei Gu
  • Liu Wang
  • Zuomin Zhou
  • Hui ZhuEmail author
  • Qi ZhouEmail author
  • Jiahao Sha
Regular Article


Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has gained widespread application in clinical medicine and hence the health of PGD offspring needs to be systematically assessed. Given the critical role of the stress response in growth and health, assessments of the development and function of the stress system might help to clarify the health outcomes of PGD. In this study, we constructed a PGD-conceived mouse model and used naturally conceived mice as controls; we used this model to evaluate the potential effect of PGD procedures on the stress system of the offspring. Serum and tissues of stress organs, namely the hypothalamus, locus coeruleus and adrenal gland, were collected from 5-week-old mice in the basal state or after cold stress. The serum levels of stress-related hormones and the structural and functional indices of the stress organs were then examined. In the basal state, ultrastructural abnormalities and low expression of genes involved in steroid hormone synthesis were found in the adrenals of the PGD mice, which had low corticosterone and high epinephrine levels compared with those of control mice. After acute cold stress, the PGD mice continued to show structural and glucocorticoid secretion abnormalities resulting in a late response to the environmental change. Thus, our study indicates that PGD manipulations affect adrenal development, result in structural and functional abnormalities of the adrenals in the offspring and influence their reactivity and adaptability to cold stress.


Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) Assisted reproduction technology (ART) Adrenal gland Corticosterone Cold stress Mouse (ICR) 



We thank Prof. Ming Xiao for his technical support during the brain morphological analysis.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Histology and EmbryologyNanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of ZoologyChinese Academy of ScienceBeijingChina

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