Comparative evaluation of in vivo osteogenic differentiation of fetal and adult mesenchymal stem cell in rat critical-sized femoral defect model
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from various sources. MSCs from different origins appear to have different preferences for differentiation. In this study, we have compared the in vivo osteogenic potential of adult MSCs from adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM) with fetal MSCs from umbilical cord (UC) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) by using a rat critical-sized femoral defect model. We have also sought to determine whether pretreatment with an osteogenic medium promotes osteogenesis in MSCs. Study groups were divided as follows: (1) defect only, (2) scaffold only, (3) AT MSCs in scaffolds, (4) BM MSCs in scaffolds, (5) UC MSCs in scaffolds and (6) UCB MSCs in scaffolds. Groups with MSCs were further divided with respect to their pretreatment. At 12 weeks after surgery, in vivo osteogenesis was measured radiographically and by micro-computed tomography (CT). Based on quantitative assessment by micro-CT, no significant difference of the mean bone volume fraction value (BV/TV) was seen between adult MSCs (AT and BM MSCs) and fetal MSCs (UC and UCB MSCs). The mean BV/TVs were significantly higher in non-pretreated BM MSC (14.2±1.4%) and UCB MSC (14.0±1.2%) and pretreated UC MSC (14.8±2.0%) than in those with the scaffold only (11.3±1.3%; P<0.05). In addition, AT (from 10.4±1.2% to 13.1±2.2%) and UC (from 10.3±0.7% to 14.8±2.0%) MSCs from solid tissues showed a significant increase in the mean BV/TV with pretreatment (P<0.05). In contrast, BM MSC (from 14.2±1.4% to 10.9±1.2%) and UCB MSC (from 14.0±1.2% to 11.6±1.0%) from non-solid tissues showed a significant decrease with pretreatment (P<0.05).