Cell and Tissue Research

, 346:53 | Cite as

Human chorionic-plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells and Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells: a comparative analysis of their potential as placenta-derived stem cells

  • Mi Jeong Kim
  • Kyung Seon Shin
  • Jin Hee Jeon
  • Dong Ryul Lee
  • Sung Han Shim
  • Jin Kyeoung Kim
  • Dong-Hyun Cha
  • Tae Ki Yoon
  • Gi Jin Kim
Regular Article


Placenta-derived stem cells (PDSCs) have gained interest as an alternative source of stem cells for regenerative medicine because of their potential for self-renewal and differentiation and their immunomodulatory properties. Although many studies have characterized various PDSCs biologically, the properties of the self-renewal and differentiation potential among PDSCs have not yet been directly compared. We consider the characterization of chorionic-plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CP-MSCs) and Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) among various PDSCs and the assessment of their differentiation potential to be important for future studies into the applicability and effectiveness of PDSCs in cell therapy. In the present study, the capacities for self-renewal and multipotent differentiation of CP-MSCs and WJ-MSC isolated from normal term placentas were compared. CP-MSCs and WJ-MSCs expressed mRNAs for the pluripotent stem cell markers Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox-2. Additionally, HLA-G for immunomodulatory effects was found to be expressed at both the mRNA and protein levels in both cell types. The CP-MSCs and WJ-MSCs also had the capacities to differentiate into cells of mesodermal (adipogenic and osteogenic) and endodermal (hepatogenic) lineages. Expression of adipogenesis-related genes was higher in CP-MSCs than in WJ-MSCs, whereas WJ-MSCs accumulated more mineralized matrix than CP-MSCs. The WJ-MSCs expressed more of CYP3A4 mRNA, a marker for mature hepatocytes, than CP-MSCs. Thus, we propose that CP-MSCs and WJ-MSCs are useful sources of cells for appropriate clinical applications in the treatment of various degenerative diseases.


Placenta-derived stem cells Chorionic-plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells Characterization Differentiation potential Human 



We thank Dr. Chong Jai Kim (Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA) for critical comments on the manuscript.


  1. Akle CA, Adinolfi M, Welsh KI, Leibowitz S, McColl I (1981) Immunogenicity of human amniotic epithelial cells after transplantation into volunteers. Lancet 2:1003–1005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alviano F, Fossati V, Marchionni C, Arpinati M, Bonsi L, Franchina M, Lanzoni G, Cantoni S, Cavallini C, Bianchi F, Tazzari PL, Pasquinelli G, Foroni L, Ventura C, Grossi A, Bagnara GP (2007) Term amniotic membrane is a high throughput source for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro. BMC Dev Biol 7:11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atala A (2006) Recent developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Curr Opin Pediatr 18:167–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakhshi T, Zabriskie RC, Bodie S, Kidd S, Ramin S, Paganessi LA, Gregory SA, Fung HC, Christopherson KW 2nd (2008) Mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord segments provide stromal support for the maintenance of cord blood hematopoietic stem cells during long-term ex vivo culture. Transfusion 48:2638–2644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banas RA, Trumpower C, Bentlejewski C, Marshall V, Sing G, Zeevi A (2008) Immunogenicity and immunomodulatory effects of amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells. Hum Immunol 69:321–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bilic G, Zeisberger SM, Mallik AS, Zimmermann R, Zisch AH (2008) Comparative characterization of cultured human term amnion epithelial and mesenchymal stromal cells for application in cell therapy. Cell Transplant 17:955–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Felix JS, Doherty RA (1979) Amniotic fluid cell culture. II. Evaluation of a red blood cell lysis procedure for culture of cells from blood-contaminated amniotic fluid. Clin Genet 15:215–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fu YS, Cheng YC, Lin MY, Cheng H, Chu PM, Chou SC, Shih YH, Ko MH, Sung MS (2006) Conversion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in Wharton's jelly to dopaminergic neurons in vitro: potential therapeutic application for Parkinsonism. Stem Cells 24:115–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gonen-Gross T, Goldman-Wohl D, Huppertz B, Lankry D, Greenfield C, Natanson-Yaron S, Hamani Y, Gilad R, Yagel S, Mandelboim O (2010) Inhibitory NK receptor recognition of HLA-G: regulation by contact residues and by cell specific expression at the fetal-maternal interface. PLoS One 5:e8941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Haigh T, Chen C, Jones CJ, Aplin JD (1999) Studies of mesenchymal cells from 1st trimester human placenta: expression of cytokeratin outside the trophoblast lineage. Placenta 20:615–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hou T, Xu J, Wu X, Xie Z, Luo F, Zhang Z, Zeng L (2009) Umbilical cord Wharton's jelly: a new potential cell source of mesenchymal stromal cells for bone tissue engineering. Tissue Eng Part A 15:2325–2334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hunt JS, Petroff MG, McIntire RH, Ober C (2005) HLA-G and immune tolerance in pregnancy. FASEB J 19:681–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Igura K, Zhang X, Takahashi K, Mitsuru A, Yamaguchi S, Takashi TA (2004) Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal progenitor cells from chorionic villi of human placenta. Cytotherapy 6:543–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kang TJ, Yeom JE, Lee HJ, Rho SH, Han H, Chae GT (2004) Growth kinetics of human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and umbilical cord blood. Acta Haematol 112:230–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Karahuseyinoglu S, Cinar O, Kilic E, Kara F, Akay GG, Demiralp DO, Tukun A, Uckan D, Can A (2007) Biology of stem cells in human umbilical cord stroma: in situ and in vitro surveys. Stem Cells 25:319–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kern S, Eichler H, Stoeve J, Kluter H, Bieback K (2006) Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, or adipose tissue. Stem Cells 24:1294–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kyo S, Takakura M, Tanaka M, Kanaya T, Sagawa T, Kohama T, Ishikawa H, Nakano T, Shimoya K, Inoue M (1997) Expression of telomerase activity in human chorion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 241:498–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee OK, Kuo TK, Chen W.-M, Lee K.-D, Hsieh S.-L, Chen T.-H (2004) Isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord blood. Blood 103:1669–1675Google Scholar
  19. Lee CC, Christensen JE, Yoder MC, Tarantal AF (2010a) Clonal analysis and hierarchy of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells. Exp Hematol 38:46–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee MJ, Jung J, Na KH, Moon JS, Lee HJ, Kim JH, Kim GI, Kwon SW, Hwang SG, Kim GJ (2010b) Anti-fibrotic effect of chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human placenta in a rat model of CCl(4)-injured liver: potential application to the treatment of hepatic diseases. J Cell Biochem 111:1453–1463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li CD, Zhang WY, Li HL, Jiang XX, Zhang Y, Tang P, Mao N (2005) Isolation and identification of a multilineage potential mesenchymal cell from human placenta. Placenta Sept 17 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  22. Li C, Zhang W, Jiang X, Mao N (2007) Human-placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit proliferation and function of allogeneic immune cells. Cell Tissue Res 330:437–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miettinen M, Lindenmayer AE, Chaubal A (1994) Endothelial cell markers CD31, CD34, and BNH9 antibody to H- and Y-antigens—evaluation of their specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of vascular tumors and comparison with von Willebrand factor. Mod Pathol 7:82–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Miki T, Strom SC (2006) Amnion-derived pluripotent/multipotent stem cells. Stem Cell Rev 2:133–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parolini O, Alviano F, Bagnara GP, Bilic G, Buhring HJ, Evangelista M, Hennerbichler S, Liu B, Magatti M, Mao N, Miki T, Marongiu F, Nakajima H, Nikaido T, Portmann-Lanz CB, Sankar V, Soncini M, Stadler G, Surbek D, Takahashi TA, Redl H, Sakuragawa N, Wolbank S, Zeisberger S, Zisch A, Strom SC (2008) Concise review: isolation and characterization of cells from human term placenta: outcome of the first international Workshop on Placenta Derived Stem Cells. Stem Cells 26:300–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Portmann-Lanz CB, Schoeberlein A, Huber A, Sager R, Malek A, Holzgreve W, Surbek DV (2006) Placental mesenchymal stem cells as potential autologous graft for pre- and perinatal neuroregeneration. Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:664–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Short B, Brouard N, Occhiodoro-Scott T, Ramakrishnan A, Simmons PJ (2003) Mesenchymal stem cells. Arch Med Res 34:565–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Soncini M, Vertua E, Gibelli L, Zorzi F, Denegri M, Albertini A, Wengler GS, Parolini O (2007) Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal cells from human fetal membranes. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 1:296–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Steigman SA, Armant M, Bayer-Zwirello L, Kao GS, Silberstein L, Ritz J, Fauza DO (2008) Preclinical regulatory validation of a 3-stage amniotic mesenchymal stem cell manufacturing protocol. J Pediatr Surg 43:1164–1169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stenderup K, Justesen J, Clausen C, Kassem M (2003) Aging is associated with decreased maximal life span and accelerated senescence of bone marrow stromal cells. Bone 33:919–926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tamagawa T, Oi S, Ishiwata I, Ishikawa H, Nakamura Y (2007) Differentiation of mesenchymal cells derived from human amniotic membranes into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. Hum Cell 20:77–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Troyer DL, Weiss ML (2008) Wharton's jelly-derived cells are a primitive stromal cell population. Stem Cells 26:591–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tsai PC, Fu TW, Chen YM, Ko TL, Chen TH, Shih YH, Hung SC, Fu YS (2009) The therapeutic potential of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly in the treatment of rat liver fibrosis. Liver Transpl 15:484–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Weiss ML, Medicetty S, Bledsoe AR, Rachakatla RS, Choi M, Merchav S, Luo Y, Rao MS, Velagaleti G, Troyer D (2006) Human umbilical cord matrix stem cells: preliminary characterization and effect of transplantation in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. Stem Cells 24:781–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yen BL, Huang HI, Chien CC, Jui HY, Ko BS, Yao M, Shun CT, Yen ML, Lee MC, Chen YC (2005) Isolation of multipotent cells from human term placenta. Stem Cells 23:3–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang X, Soda Y, Takahashi K, Bai Y, Mitsuru A, Igura K, Satoh H, Yamaguchi S, Tani K, Tojo A, Takahashi TA (2006) Successful immortalization of mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from human placenta and the differentiation abilities of immortalized cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 351:853–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zheng YB, Gao ZL, Xie C, Zhu HP, Peng L, Chen JH, Chong YT (2008) Characterization and hepatogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic fluid and human bone marrow: a comparative study. Cell Biol Int 32:1439–1448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mi Jeong Kim
    • 1
  • Kyung Seon Shin
    • 1
  • Jin Hee Jeon
    • 1
  • Dong Ryul Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sung Han Shim
    • 1
  • Jin Kyeoung Kim
    • 3
  • Dong-Hyun Cha
    • 4
  • Tae Ki Yoon
    • 5
  • Gi Jin Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical ScienceCHA UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Graduate School of Life Science and BiotechnologyCHA UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of BioScienceCHA UniversitySungnamRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Departments of Obstetrics and GynecologyGangnam CHA Medical Center, CHA UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Fertility Center of CHA General Hospital, CHA Research InstituteCHA UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations