Immunohistological markers for proliferative events, gliogenesis, and neurogenesis within the adult hippocampus
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- von Bohlen und Halbach, O. Cell Tissue Res (2011) 345: 1. doi:10.1007/s00441-011-1196-4
Biologists long believed that, once development is completed, no new neurons are produced in the forebrain. However, as is now firmly established, new neurons can be produced at least in two specific forebrain areas: the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampal formation. Neurogenesis within the adult DG occurs constitutively throughout postnatal life, and the rate of neurogenesis within the DG can be altered under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The process of adult neurogenesis within the DG is a multi-step process (proliferation, differentiation, migration, targeting, and synaptic integration) that ends with the formation of a post-mitotic functionally integrated new neuron. Various markers are expressed during specific stages of adult neurogenesis. The availability of such markers allows the time-course and fate of newly born cells to be followed within the DG in a detailed and precise fashion. Several of the available markers (e.g., PCNA, Ki-67, PH3, MCM2) are markers for proliferative events, whereas others are more specific for early phases of neurogenesis and gliogenesis within the adult DG (e.g., nestin, GFAP, Sox2, Pax6). In addition, markers are available allowing events to be distinguished that are related to later steps of gliogenesis (e.g., vimentin, BLBP, S100beta) or neurogenesis (e.g., NeuroD, PSA-NCAM, DCX).