Primary cilia and organogenesis: is Hedgehog the only sculptor?
- 711 Downloads
The primary cilium is a small microtubule-based organelle projecting from the plasma membrane of practically all cells in the mammalian body. In the past 8 years, a flurry of papers has indicated a crucial role of this long-neglected organelle in the development of a wide variety of organs, including derivatives of all three germ layers. A common theme of these studies is the critical dependency of signal transduction of the Hedgehog pathway upon functionally intact cilia to regulate organogenesis. Another common theme is the role that the cilium plays, not necessarily in the determination of the embryonic anlagen of these organs, although this too occurs but rather in the proliferation and morphogenesis of the previously determined organ. We outline the various organ systems that are dependent upon primary cilia for their proper development and we discuss the cilia-dependent roles that Sonic and Indian Hedgehog play in these processes. In addition and most importantly for the field, we discuss the controversial involvement of another major developmental pathway, Wnt signaling, in cilia-dependent organogenesis.
KeywordsPrimary cilia Ciliopathy Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) Wnt Organogenesis Signal transduction
The authors thank Joachim Kirsch for generous scientific support. They apologize to those colleagues whose papers have not been cited, on the basis of limited space, in this work.
- Cortellino S, Wang C, Wang B, Bassi MR, Caretti E, Champeval D, Calmont A, Jarnik M, Burch J, Zaret KS, Larue L, Bellacosa A (2009) Defective ciliogenesis, embryonic lethality and severe impairment of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway caused by inactivation of the mouse complex A intraflagellar transport gene Ift122/Wdr10, partially overlapping with the DNA repair gene Med1/Mbd4. Dev Biol 325:225–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Endoh-Yamagami S, Evangelista M, Wilson D, Wen X, Theunissen JW, Phamluong K, Davis M, Scales SJ, Solloway MJ, Sauvage FJ de, Peterson AS (2009) The mammalian Cos2 homolog Kif7 plays an essential role in modulating Hh signal transduction during development. Curr Biol 19:1320–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feldmann G, Fendrich V, McGovern K, Bedja D, Bisht S, Alvarez H, Koorstra JB, Habbe N, Karikari C, Mullendore M, Gabrielson KL, Sharma R, Matsui W, Maitra A (2008) An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling inhibits tumor initiation and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Ther 7:2725–2735PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Francis-West PH, Robertson KE, Ede DA, Rodriguez C, Izpisua-Belmonte JC, Houston B, Burt DW, Gribbin C, Brickell PM, Tickle C (1995) Expression of genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins and sonic hedgehog in talpid (ta3) limb buds: their relationships in the signalling cascade involved in limb patterning. Dev Dyn 203:187–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hallahan AR, Pritchard JI, Hansen S, Benson M, Stoeck J, Hatton BA, Russell TL, Ellenbogen RG, Bernstein ID, Beachy PA, Olson JM (2004) The SmoA1 mouse model reveals that notch signaling is critical for the growth and survival of sonic hedgehog-induced medulloblastomas. Cancer Res 64:7794–7800PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Koyama E, Young B, Nagayama M, Shibukawa Y, Enomoto-Iwamoto M, Iwamoto M, Maeda Y, Lanske B, Song B, Serra R, Pacifici M (2007) Conditional Kif3a ablation causes abnormal hedgehog signaling topography, growth plate dysfunction, and excessive bone and cartilage formation during mouse skeletogenesis. Development 134:2159–2169PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masyuk AI, Gradilone SA, Banales JM, Huang BQ, Masyuk TV, Lee SO, Splinter PL, Stroope AJ, Larusso NF (2008a) Cholangiocyte primary cilia are chemosensory organelles that detect biliary nucleotides via P2Y12 purinergic receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295:G725–G734PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McDermott KM, Liu BY, Tlsty TD, Pazour GJ (2010) Primary cilia regulate branching morphogenesis during mammary gland development. Curr Biol (in press)Google Scholar
- Otto EA, Schermer B, Obara T, O'Toole JF, Hiller KS, Mueller AM, Ruf RG, Hoefele J, Beekmann F, Landau D, Foreman JW, Goodship JA, Strachan T, Kispert A, Wolf MT, Gagnadoux MF, Nivet H, Antignac C, Walz G, Drummond IA, Benzing T, Hildebrandt F (2003) Mutations in INVS encoding inversin cause nephronophthisis type 2, linking renal cystic disease to the function of primary cilia and left-right axis determination. Nat Genet 34:413–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simons M, Gloy J, Ganner A, Bullerkotte A, Bashkurov M, Kronig C, Schermer B, Benzing T, Cabello OA, Jenny A, Mlodzik M, Polok B, Driever W, Obara T, Walz G (2005) Inversin, the gene product mutated in nephronophthisis type II, functions as a molecular switch between Wnt signaling pathways. Nat Genet 37:537–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tran PV, Haycraft CJ, Besschetnova TY, Turbe-Doan A, Stottmann RW, Herron BJ, Chesebro AL, Qiu H, Scherz PJ, Shah JV, Yoder BK, Beier DR (2008) THM1 negatively modulates mouse sonic hedgehog signal transduction and affects retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia. Nat Genet 40:403–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Valente EM, Silhavy JL, Brancati F, Barrano G, Krishnaswami SR, Castori M, Lancaster MA, Boltshauser E, Boccone L, Al-Gazali L, Fazzi E, Signorini S, Louie CM, Bellacchio E, Bertini E, Dallapiccola B, Gleeson JG (2006) Mutations in CEP290, which encodes a centrosomal protein, cause pleiotropic forms of Joubert syndrome. Nat Genet 38:623–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Welscher P te, Zuniga A, Kuijper S, Drenth T, Goedemans HJ, Meijlink F, Zeller R (2002) Progression of vertebrate limb development through SHH-mediated counteraction of GLI3. Science 298:827–830Google Scholar
- Xiao Z, Zhang S, Mahlios J, Zhou G, Magenheimer BS, Guo D, Dallas SL, Maser R, Calvet JP, Bonewald L, Quarles LD (2006) Cilia-like structures and polycystin-1 in osteoblasts/osteocytes and associated abnormalities in skeletogenesis and Runx2 expression. J Biol Chem 281:30884–30895PubMedGoogle Scholar