Spatiotemporal expression profile of no29/nucleophosmin3 in the intestine of Xenopus laevis during metamorphosis
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- Motoi, N., Hasebe, T., Suzuki, K.T. et al. Cell Tissue Res (2011) 344: 445. doi:10.1007/s00441-011-1163-0
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A Xenopus laevis homolog of nucleophosmin/nucleoplasmin3 (NPM3), no29, has been previously identified as a thyroid hormone (TH)-response gene during TH-induced metamorphosis. X. laevis has another NPM3 homolog (npm3) in the pseudo-tetraploid genome, whereas X. tropicalis possesses one ortholog in the diploid genome. To assess the possible roles of these NPM3 homologs in amphibian metamorphosis, we have analyzed their expression profiles in X. laevis tadpoles. Levels of no29 and npm3 mRNA are rapidly up-regulated by exogenous TH in various organs of the premetamorphic tadpoles. Notably, in the small intestine, no29 and npm3 mRNA levels are transiently up-regulated during metamorphic climax, when progenitor/stem cells of the adult epithelium appear and actively proliferate. In situ hybridization analysis has revealed that the no29 transcript is specifically localized in adult epithelial progenitor/stem cells of the intestine during natural and TH-induced metamorphosis. Double-staining for in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry has shown co-expression of no29 mRNA and no38 protein (an ortholog of NPM1), which is known to interact with NPM3 and to regulate cell proliferation in mammals. Thus, no29/npm3 might serve as a stem cell marker in the intestine during metamorphosis.