Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 339, Issue 3, pp 649–653

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 (PAC1) receptor is expressed during embryonic development of the earthworm

  • Ákos Boros
  • Ildikó Somogyi
  • Péter Engelmann
  • Andrea Lubics
  • Dóra Reglodi
  • Edit Pollák
  • László Molnár
Short Communication

Abstract

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)-like molecules have been shown to be present in cocoon albumin and in Eisenia fetida embryos at an early developmental stage (E1) by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Here, we focus on detecting the stage at which PAC1 receptor (PAC1R)-like immunoreactivity first appears in germinal layers and structures, e.g., various parts of the central nervous system (CNS), in developing earthworm embryos. PAC1R-like immunoreactivity was revealed by Western blot and Far Western blot as early as the E2 developmental stage, occurring in the ectoderm and later in specific neurons of the developing CNS. Labeled CNS neurons were first seen in the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and subsequently in the subesophageal and ventral nerve cord ganglia. Ultrastructurally, PAC1Rs were located mainly on plasma membranes and intracellular membranes, especially on cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, PACAP-like compounds probably influence the differentiation of germinal layers (at least the ectoderm) and of some neurons and might act as signaling molecules during earthworm embryonic development.

Keywords

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide Western blot Far Western blot Immunocytochemistry Eisenia fetida (Annelida) 

References

  1. Arimura A (1998) Perspectives on pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the neuroendocrine, endocrine, and nervous systems. Jpn J Physiol 48:301–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Boros Á, Herbert Z, Kiszler G, Németh J, Reglodi D, Lubics A, Kiss P, Tamás A, Shioda S, Matsuda K, Pollák E, Molnár L (2008) Changes in the expression of PACAP-like compounds during the embryonic development of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. J Mol Neurosci 36:157–165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cardoso JCR, Viera FA, Gomes AS, Power DM (2007) PACAP, VIP and their receptors in the metazoan: insights about the origin and evolution of the ligand-receptor pair. Peptides 28:1902–1919CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hernádi L, Pirger Z, Kiss T, Németh J, Márk L, Kiss P, Tamás A, Lubics A, Tóth G, Shioda S, Reglodi D (2008) The presence and distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor (PAC1-R) in the snail Helix pomatia. Neuroscience 155:387–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Krueckl SL, Fradinger EA, Sherwood NM (2003) Developmental changes in the expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in zebrafish. J Comp Neurol 455:396–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Miyata A, Jiang L, Dahl RD, Kitada C, Kubo K, Fujino M, Minamino M, Arimura A (1990) Isolation of a neuropeptide corresponding to the N-terminal 27 residues of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide with 38 residues (PACAP38). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 170:643–648CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Molnár L, Pollák E, Boros Á, Reglodi D, Tamás A, Lengvári I, Arimura A, Lubics A (2006) Comparative anatomy of PACAP-immunoreactive structures in the ventral nerve cord ganglia of lumbricid oligochaetes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1070:427–430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Molnár L, Pollák E, Boros Á, Shioda S, Nakajo S, Tamás A, Lengvári I, Reglodi D, Lubics A (2008) PAC1 receptor localization in a model nervous system: light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry on the earthworm ventral nerve cord ganglia. Regul Pept 145:96–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Prosser CL (1933) Correlation between development of behavior and neuromuscular differentiation in embryos of Eisenia foetida, Sav. J Comp Neurol 58:603–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Solano RM, Carmena MJ, Buso R, Sanchez-Chapado M, Guijarro LG, Prieto JC (1999) Identification and functional properties of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PAC1) receptor in human benign hyperplastic prostatae. Cell Signal 11:813–819CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Somogyvári-Vigh A, Reglodi D, Li M, Lengvári I, Vigh S, Arimura A (2000) Tissue distribution of PACAP27 and -38 in oligochaeta: PACAP27 is the predominant form in the nervous system of Lumbricus polyphaemus. Peptides 21:1185–1191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Watanabe J, Nakamachi T, Matsuno R, Hayashi D, Nakamura M, Kikuyama S, Nakajo S, Shioda S (2007) Localization, characterization and function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide during brain development. Peptides 28:1713–1719CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ákos Boros
    • 1
  • Ildikó Somogyi
    • 1
  • Péter Engelmann
    • 2
  • Andrea Lubics
    • 3
  • Dóra Reglodi
    • 3
    • 4
  • Edit Pollák
    • 1
  • László Molnár
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of General Zoology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of PécsPécsHungary
  2. 2.Department of Immunology and Biotechnology, Clinical CenterUniversity of PécsPécsHungary
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy, Medical SchoolUniversity of PécsPécsHungary
  4. 4.Department of AnatomyRoss University Medical SchoolPortsmouthWest Indies

Personalised recommendations