Silicatein-mediated incorporation of titanium into spicules from the demosponge Suberites domuncula
- 191 Downloads
Primmorphs (a three-dimensional sponge primary cell culture system) have been revealed to be a cell/tissue nano-factory for the production of tailor-made hybrid nanostructures. Growth of primmorphs is stimulated by the presence of a titanium alkoxide precursor tolerating titania (TiO2) concentrations up to 250 μM. The presence and activity of silicatein in primmorphs has been analyzed by gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Results of studies by scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy have revealed silica and titania to be co-localized on nanosized spicules. Our findings suggest that the incorporation of titania into the nanosized spicule is enzymatically mediated via active silicatein in an orchestrated mechanism.
KeywordsSilicatein Primmorphs Nanomaterials Sponges Suberites domuncula (Porifera)
- Brinker CJ, Scherrer GW (1990) Sol-gel science: the physics and chemistry of sol-gel processing. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Müller WEG, Schloßmacher U, Wang X, Boreiko A, Brandt D, Wolf SE, Tremel W, Schröder HC (2008) Poly(silicate)-metabolizing silicatein in siliceous spicules and silicasomes of demosponges comprises dual enzymatic activities (silica-polymerase and silica-esterase). FEBS J 275:362–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schröder HC, Boreiko A, Korzhev M, Tahir MN, Tremel W, Eckert C, Ushijima H, Müller IM, Müller WEG (2006) Co-expression and functional interaction of silicatein with galectin. Matrix-guided formation of siliceous spicules in the marine demosponge Suberites domuncula. J Biol Chem 281:12001–12009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schröder HC, Natalio F, Shukoor MI, Tremel W, Schloßmacher U, Wang X, Müller WEG (2007) Apposition of silica lamellae during growth of spicules in the demosponge Suberites domuncula: biological/biochemical studies and chemical/biomimetical confirmation. J Struct Biol 159:325–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar