Peptidergic paracrine and endocrine cells in the midgut of the fruit fly maggot
- 866 Downloads
Endocrine cells in the larval midgut of Drosophila melanogaster are recognized by antisera to seven regulatory peptides: the allatostatins A, B, and C, short neuropeptide F, neuropeptide F, diuretic hormone 31, and the tachykinins. These are the same peptides that are produced by the endocrine cells of the adult midgut, except for short neuropeptide F, which is absent in adult midgut endocrine cells. The anterior larval midgut contains two types of endocrine cells. The first produces short neuropeptide F, which is also recognized by an antiserum to the receptor for the diuretic hormone leucokinin. The second type in the anterior midgut is recognized by an antiserum to diuretic hormone 31. The latter cell type is also found in the junction between the anterior and middle midgut; an additional type of endocrine cell in this region produces allatostatin B, a peptide also known as myoinhibitory peptide. Both types of endocrine cells in the junction between the anterior and middle midgut can express the homeodomain transcription factor labial. The copper cell region contains small cells that either produce allatostatin C or a combination of neuropeptide F, allatostatin B, and diuretic hormone 31. The latter cell type is also found in the region of the large flat cells. The posterior midgut possesses strongly immunoreactive allatostatin C endocrine cells immediately behind the iron cells. In the next part of the posterior midgut, two cell types have been found: one produces diuretic hormone 31, and a second is strongly immunoreactive to antiserum against the leucokinin receptor and weakly immunoreactive to antisera against allatostatins B and C and short neuropeptide F. The last part of the posterior midgut again has two types of endocrine cells: those that produce allatostatin A, and those that produce tachykinins. Many of the latter cells are also weakly immunoreactive to the antiserum against diuretic hormone 31. As in the adult, the insulin-like peptide 3 gene appears to be expressed by midgut muscles, but not by midgut endocrine cells.
KeywordsTachykinin Labial Allatostatin sNPF Diuretic hormone Neuropeptide F Drosophila melanogaster (Insecta)
I am grateful to Heinrich Reichert, Ping Shen, and Paul Taghert for generously sending various fly lines, to Frank Hirth, Cok Grimmelikhuijzen, Liliane Schoofs, Julian Dow, René Feyereisen, and Heinrich Dircksen for sharing valuable antisera, to Jean-Luc Morel for an aliquot of his rhodamine-labeled phalloidoin, to Venkat Chintapalli, Jing Wang, and Julian Dow for the timely addition of larval tissues to the Fly Atlas, and to two anonymous reviewers for constructive criticism of the manuscript.
- Adams MD, Celniker SE, Holt RA, Evans CA, Gocayne JD, Amanatides PG, Scherer SE, Li PW, Hoskins RA, Galle RF, George RA, Lewis SE, Richards S, Ashburner M, Henderson SN, Sutton GG, Wortman JR, Yandell MD, Zhang Q, Chen LX, Brandon RC, Rogers YHC, Blazej RG, Champe M, Pfeiffer BD, Wan KH, Doyle C, Baxter EG, Helt G, Nelson CR, Miklos GLG, Abril JF, Agbayani A, An HJ, Andrews-Pfannkoch C, Baldwin D, Ballew RM, Basu A, Baxendale J, Bayraktaroglu L, Beasley EM, Beeson KY, Benos PV, Berman BP, Bhandari D, Bolshakov S, Borkova D, Botchan MR, Bouck J, Brokstein P, Brottier P, Burtis KC, Busam DA, Butler H, Cadieu E, Center A, Chandra I, Cherry JM, Cawley S, Dahlke C, Davenport LB, Davies A, de Pablos B, Delcher A, Deng ZM, Mays AD, Dew I, Dietz SM, Dodson K, Doup LE, Downes M, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunkov BC, D Chen unn P, Durbin KJ, Evangelista CC, Ferraz C, Ferriera S, Fleischmann W, Fosler C, Gabrielian AE, Garg NS, Gelbart WM, Glasser K, Glodek A, Gong FC, Gorrell JH, Gu ZP, Guan P, Harris M, Harris NL, Harvey D, Heiman TJ, Hernandez JR, Houck J, Hostin D, Houston DA, Howland TJ, Wei MH, Ibegwam C, Jalali M, Kalush F, Karpen GH, Ke ZX, Kennison JA, Ketchum KA, Kimmel BE, Kodira CD, Kraft C, Kravitz S, Kulp D, Lai ZW, Lasko P, Lei YD, Levitsky AA, Li JY, Li ZY, Liang Y, Lin XY, Liu XJ, Mattei B, McIntosh TC, McLeod MP, McPherson D, Merkulov G, Milshina NV, Mobarry C, Morris J, Moshrefi A, Mount SM, Moy M, Murphy B, Murphy L, Muzny DM, Nelson DL, Nelson DR, Nelson KA, Nixon K, Nusskern DR, Pacleb JM, Palazzolo M, Pittman GS, Pan S, Pollard J, Puri V, Reese MG, Reinert K, Remington K, Saunders RDC, Scheeler F, Shen H, Shue BC, Siden-Kiamos I, Simpson M, Skupski MP, Smith T, Spier E, Spradling AC, Stapleton M, Strong R, Sun E, Svirskas R, Tector C, Turner R, Venter E, Wang AHH, Wang X, Wang ZY, Wassarman DA, Weinstock GM, Weissenbach J, Williams SM, Woodage T, Worley KC, Wu D, Yang S, Yao QA, Ye J, Yeh RF, Zaveri JS, Zhan M, Zhang GG, Zhao Q, Zheng LS, Zheng XQH, Zhong FN, Zhong WY, Zhou XJ, Zhu SP, Zhu XH, Smith HO, Gibbs RA, Myers EW, Rubin GM, Venter JC (2000) The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. Science 287:2185–2195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Agricola H-J, Bräunig P, Meissner R, Nauman W, Wollweber L, Davis N (1995) Colocalization of allostatin-like immunoreactivity with other neuromodulators in the CNS of Periplaneta americana. In: Elsner N, Menzel R (eds) Learning and memory. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 616Google Scholar
- Boer HH, Schot LPC, Veenstra JA, Reichelt D (1980) Immunocytochemical identification of neural elements in the central nervous systems of a snail, some insects, a fish, and a mammal with an antiserum to the molluscan cardio-excitatory tetrapeptide FMRF-amide. Cell Tissue Res 231:21–27Google Scholar
- Schoofs L, Holman GM, Paemen L, Veelaert D, Amelinckx M, De Loof A (1993) Isolation, identification, and synthesis of PDVDHFLRFamide (SchistoFLRFamide) in Locusta migratoria and its association with the male accessory glands, the salivary glands, the heart, and the oviduct. Peptides 14:409–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Strasburger M (1932) Bau, Funktion und Variabilität des Darmtractus von Drosophila melanogaster. Z Wiss Zool 140:539–649Google Scholar