Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 328, Issue 1, pp 109–116

Histological changes in intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) following in vitro exposure to pathogenic and probiotic bacterial strains

  • E. Ringø
  • I. Salinas
  • R. E. Olsen
  • A. Nyhaug
  • R. Myklebust
  • T. M. Mayhew
Regular Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00441-006-0323-0

Cite this article as:
Ringø, E., Salinas, I., Olsen, R.E. et al. Cell Tissue Res (2007) 328: 109. doi:10.1007/s00441-006-0323-0

Abstract

Furunculosis and vibriosis are diseases that cause severe economic losses in the fish-farming industry. The foregut of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was exposed in vitro to two fish pathogens, Aeromonas salmonicida (causative agent of furunculosis) and Vibrio anguillarum (causative agent of vibriosis), and to one probiotic strain, Carnobacterium divergens, at 6 × 104 or 6 × 106 viable bacteria per milliliter. Histological changes following bacterial exposure were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Control samples (foregut exposed to Ringer’s solution only) and samples exposed only to C. divergens had a similar appearance to intact intestinal mucosal epithelium, with no signs of damage. However, exposure of the foregut to the pathogenic bacteria resulted in damaged epithelial cells, cell debris in the lumen, and disorganization of the microvilli. Co-incubation of the foregut with a pathogen and C. divergens did not reverse the damaging effects caused by the pathogen, although these were alleviated when probiotic bacteria were used. Based on these results, we suggest that the probiotic bacterium, C. divergens, is able to prevent, to some extent, pathogen-induced damage in the Atlantic salmon foregut.

Keywords

Fish digestive tract Epithelial damage Aeromonas salmonicida Vibrio anguillarum Carnobacterium divergens Salmo salar (Teleostei) 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Ringø
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • I. Salinas
    • 4
    • 5
  • R. E. Olsen
    • 3
  • A. Nyhaug
    • 4
  • R. Myklebust
    • 4
  • T. M. Mayhew
    • 6
  1. 1.Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Infection BiologyNorwegian School of Veterinary ScienceTromsøNorway
  2. 2.Department of Marine Biotechnology, Norwegian College of Fishery ScienceUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway
  3. 3.Institute of Marine ResearchMatre Aquaculture Research StationMatredalNorway
  4. 4.Institute of Anatomy and Cell BiologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  5. 5.Fish Innate Immune System, Department of Cell BiologyUniversity of MurciaMurciaSpain
  6. 6.School of Biomedical Sciences, Queen’s Medical CentreUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK

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